Constans II


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Constans II

(Constans Pogonatus), 630–68, Byzantine emperor (641–68), son and successor of Constantine III and grandson of HeracliusHeraclius
, c.575–641, Byzantine emperor (610–41). The son of a governor of Africa, he succeeded the tyrant Phocas, whom he deposed and had executed. In the early years of his reign Avars and Bulgars threatened, attacking even Constantinople, and the Persians
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. Early in his reign Armenia and Asia Minor were invaded by the Muslims, who challenged Byzantine supremacy at sea, took Cyprus, and threatened Sicily and Constantinople. An able and vigorous ruler, he sought to end the religious controversy centering about MonotheletismMonotheletism
or Monothelitism
[Gr.,=one will], 7th-century opinion condemned as heretical by the Third Council of Constantinople in 680 (see Constantinople, Third Council of).
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 by issuing a decree (648) forbidding its discussion. This involved him in conflict with Pope Martin IMartin I, Saint,
d. 655?, pope (649–55?), an Italian, b. Todi; successor of Theodore I. On his accession he summoned a great council at the Lateran, as St. Maximus had urged, to deal with Monotheletism, discussion of which had been forbidden by Byzantine Emperor Constans
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, whom he finally had arrested and banished. Constans campaigned (658) in the Balkans against the Slavs, and in 662 he moved to Italy, with the purpose of establishing his capital at Rome, but fought with little result against the Lombards and finally settled (663) at Syracuse. From there he directed a successful resistance to the Muslims. Constans extended the administrative reorganization of the empire begun by Heraclius. Assassinated, he was succeeded by his son, Constantine IVConstantine IV,
c.652–685, Byzantine emperor (668–85), son and successor of Constans II. He defended Constantinople against the annual naval attacks of the Muslims, who finally withdrew in 678; Greek fire was a conspicuous weapon in the defense.
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.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Among their topics are east and west from a Visigoth perspective: how and why Frankish brides were negotiated in the late sixth century, private records of official diplomacy: the Franco-Byzantine letters in the Austrasian Epistolar Collection, Mediterranean homesick blues: human trafficking in the Merovingian leges, the portrayal of Emperor Tiberius II in Gregory of Tours, and when contemporary history is caught up by the immediate present: Fredegar's proleptic depiction of Emperor Constans II. (Ringgold, Inc., Portland, OR)
the Historian, Dvin was captured in 640 during the reign of Constans II and Catholicos Ezra.
The Byzantine emperor Constans II tried to settle the matter by forbidding anyone to discuss Christ's divinity.
He considers such topics as Rome and the East in the time of Gregory the Great, the monothelite controversy, the Lateran Council of 649, and the Italian expedition of Constans II as a prelude to the Greek popes.
(30) The Zalesie torque--which, in turn, is similar to, but not identical with, the one found at Cadavica--was associated with a silver chalice very similar to four chalices found in an assemblage at Malo Pereshchepino (Left Bank Ukraine), presumably a burial assemblage, together with "light weight" solidi minted in Constantinople for Emperor Constans II between 642 and 647.
Theophanes' account of Emperor Constans II's campaign of 656/7 against Sklavinia is confirmed by independent, though much later, Syrian sources.
(78) By contrast, a great number of coins of Emperor Constans II have been found at both Athens and Corinth.
(82) However, such alterations have been dated on numismatic evidence to the reign of Constans II, and thus postdate the period of crisis delineated by hoard finds.
(84) Similarly decorated single-handled pots have been found at Isthmia on the south side of the Northeast Gate, in association with a coin struck for Emperor Constans II in 655/6.
All 18 of the solidi of Constans II from this assemblage were pierced and reused as pendants.
Constans II. who was to emerge to bring some stability to and consolidation of its reduced territories.)