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In ancient Rome:

Constantius I. (Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus; the nickname Chlorus means “the pale”). Born 264, in Illyria; died 306, in Eboracum, Britain. Emperor in 305–306.

Constantius I was the father of Constantine the Great. He rose to the position of military leader under Diocletian. In 293 he was named Caesar of the Western Empire. In 305, after the abdication of Diocletian, he received the title Augustus. Constantius I carried out campaigns against Germanic tribes and suppressed rebellion in Britain in 297.

Constantius II. (Flavius Julius Constantius). Born 317, in Sirmium; died 361, in Mopsucrenae, Cilicia. Emperor from 337 to 361 (Caesar from 324, Augustus from 337).

When the empire was divided among the sons of Constantine the Great in 337, Constantius II took Asia and Egypt and, later (339), the Balkan Peninsula. After the death of his brothers (Constantine II in 340 and Constans in 350) and his victory over the usurper Magnentius in 352, Constantius II restored unity to the empire and became the sole ruler (353). He strove to establish the political supremacy of Constantinople over Rome. His palace was noted for great splendor. The bureaucracy with its many spies played a significant role during his reign. He supported Arianism and banished those who upheld the Nicene Creed, including Athanasius of Alexandria. He closed pagan temples, confiscating their property, and forbade the offering of sacrifices. Constantius II died during a campaign against the Persians.

Constantius III. (Flavius Constantius). Died 421. General of Emperor Honorius. In 421 he was co-ruler with Honorius and bore the title Augustus.


Stein, E. Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. 1. Paris, 1959.


References in classic literature ?
The destruction of Crispus, a young prince of rare towardness, by Constantinus the Great, his father, was in like manner fatal to his house; for both Constantinus and Constance, his sons, died violent deaths; and Constantius, his other son, did little better; who died indeed of sickness, but after that Julianus had taken arms against him.
We had hoped to run Constantius, but we haven't really been able to get any work into them over the last eight days.
Early in his episcopacy, Cyril sent a letter to the Emperor Constantius in which he reported a miracle.
CONSTANTIUS, injured in action for the military, made the perfect return to the fray, after nearly a year hors de combat and an operation to remove bone splinters, with a gambled-on success in the handicap chase.
Close to my own research, Timothy Barnes's excellent book Athanasius and Constantius scrupulously examines the polemical writings of Athanasius of Alexandria to reconstruct the true facts regarding the controversial bishop's political career.
Their view of the teeth-rattling tumble that saw Lt G Disney flung head-first into the turf by Constantius at the second-last, knocked unconscious for eight minutes and rushed to hospital after a spell behind the screens, was that it was a "typical amateur's fall", presumably on the basis that a typical professional looks far more stylish when having his neck broken.
Curran also shows very clearly that the close connection of Roman emperors with the city of Rome continued to be important in the fourth century; Constantius II's visit in 357 may have been exceptional, but even after this it is possible to talk of a special status for Rome in relation to the ancient cults.
The amateur rider came off the Kim Bailey-trained Constantius in the Royal Artillery Gold Cup and lay prostrate for a worryingly long time.
The stone seen in photograph 1 (on page 524) is from the town of Fiq in the southern district of Hippus, and contains the opening portion of the usual formula, which we can complete, though the names of the towns are lost: "Diocletian and Maximian, Augusti, and Constantius and Maximian, most worthy [Caesars, ordered that this stone demarking the boundaries of N.
The Andy Stewart-owned nine-year-old was rather fortunate, however, as he was battling upsides Constantius when his rival fell.
After a methodological introduction, Bell's first chapter examines the non-material evidence for reuse, together with a fresh look at historical references to the reuse of the Roman past, including the Venerable Bede, Sidonius Apollinaris, Constantius of Lyon and the Anglo-Saxon poem, the Ruin.
Being exiled to the East (356) by the Arian emperor Constantius II allowed him to acquire full details of the Council of Nicaea (325) and current Greek theology, writing the first three (of twelve) books of his masterpiece, On The Trinity, and so impressively defending orthodoxy at the Council of Seleucia (359) that Constantius, fearing his influence, recalled him in 360.