artificial languages

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artificial languages,

languages that are invented by one or more human beings as opposed to languages that develop naturally among peoples. Examples of artificial languages are Volapük, EsperantoEsperanto
, an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent.
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, and IdoIdo
, short name of Esperandido, an artificial language that is a simplified version of Esperanto. See international language.
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. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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.

Artificial Languages

 

special languages that, unlike natural languages, are constructed purposefully; they are used for performing certain functions of a natural language in data processing systems. There are two types of artificial languages: information languages and international auxiliary languages.

The idea for the creation of an international language arose in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the gradually decreasing international role of Latin. The initial schemes were aimed mainly at the development of a rational language, free from the logical inconsistencies of living languages and based on the logical classification of concepts. Schemes imitating patterns and material of living languages also appeared later. The first such scheme was Volapük, which was created in 1880 by the German linguist J. Schleyer. Esperanto, the only artificial language to be used on a large scale and to attract active proponents of an international language, became the best-known artificial language. A considerable number of translated and even original literary works exists in Esperanto. Of the later artificial languages, the best known are Occidental (Interlingue), created by E. de Wahl (Estonia) in 1922; Novial, created by O. Jespersen (Denmark) in 1928; and Interlingua, created by the Italian mathematician G. Peano in 1908 and the International Auxiliary Language Association in New York under the direction of A. Gode in 1950.

Artificial international language schemes may be divided into the following groups according to their structure: (1) a priori languages, based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts (Ro and Solresol); (2) mixed languages, based partly on words borrowed from various languages and partly on artificially invented words (Volapük); and (3) languages constructed primarily on the basis of an international vocabulary (Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua).

E. A. BOKAREV

References in periodicals archive ?
Which 'E' is the most spoken constructed language in the world?
And despite the difficulties of promoting a constructed language, it still has a large cohort of fans all around the world.
The subject of the transaction of the delivery, installation, installation and commissioning of 11 language laboratories in 11 secondary schools, including providing the necessary software, hardware, information and presentation technology including installing a pc and a monitor that will be procured through another selection process, including further ensure the connection thus constructed language laboratories into computer networks of schools so that each classroom formed a functional unit.
once a constructed language finds an audience, it quickly escapes the
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Lock and Strong argue that Vico suggests varied understandings grounded in human interactions and points to the role that humanly constructed language plays in what passes for knowledge, asking us to embrace the complexities of human meanings and relatedness.
Thus, seventeenth-century language schemes were divided into two strands: (a) the idea of a pre-Adamite, a priori universal language as proposed by the utopians Godwin and Wilkins and as the detailed introduction to A Country Not Named, by Francis Lodwick, shows; (b) the idea of an a posteriori, constructed language in the vein of More, Foigny, and Veiras.
Implications for teaching and learning English and socially/historically constructed language attitudes in a non-Western culture are discussed.
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Next, I'd like to present two cases which could possibly answer this question: Nu Shu (Nushu) the world's only women's language, as has been labelled, and Laadan, a constructed language created by Suzette Haden Elgin.