a collection of basic standard requirements and conditions that regulate design and construction in all branches of the national economy of the USSR. The Construction Code was adopted by the State Committee on Construction (Gosstroi) of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for general mandatory use on Jan. 1,1955; a new format for the code was approved in 1973. The introduction of a common construction code was prompted by the need to improve the quality and reduce the costs of capital construction by applying the most efficient design standards, modern estimating standards, and guidelines for the completion and acceptance of work; these standards and guidelines must reflect the latest construction practices. The Construction Code was developed with due regard for innovations in the construction industry, the introduction of advanced technology, the higher level of organization and mechanization, the maximum use of prefabricated structural components and parts, and the efficient use of natural resources. It facilitates a unified engineering policy in capital construction.
Until 1955 there was no comprehensive standard statute for construction in the USSR. In Russia during the first half of the 1800’s, the Contract Prices Statute was issued containing chiefly norms for the expenditure of labor time and materials for different types of work. In 1857 the Construction Statute was introduced, which included an organizational administrative regulation for construction and some standard requirements for structural design.
The Construction Code comprises four parts: (1) general regulations, (2) design standards, (3) rules for completing and accepting work, and (4) cost-estimating standards and rules with collections of cost-estimating standards as a supplement. Each part is divided into separate, independently issued chapters.
The first part contains statutes governing standards, construction terminology, the classification of buildings and structures, and rules for assigning modular dimensions and tolerances in construction.
The second part lists standard requirements in the following categories: general problems in design associated with construction climatology, geophysics, fireproofing standards, heat engineering, loads and actions, and seismic construction; the foundations of buildings and structures; structural design, engineering equipment for buildings, and outside mains; transportation facilities; buildings and structures for communications, radio broadcasting, and television; hydraulic-and power-engineering construction; the planning and development of cities, settlements, and rural population centers; residential and public buildings and structures; industrial enterprises and their shops and auxiliary buildings; agricultural enterprises and their buildings and structures; and storage facilities.
The third part lists requirements in the following areas: the organization of construction and the acceptance procedures for completed projects; geodetic work in construction; safety precautions; the execution and acceptance procedures for earthwork, foundation preparation, and the erection of structures; and the installation of engineering and technical equipment for buildings, structures, and external mains.
The fourth part contains guidelines for preparing cost-estimating standards in construction work for individual components and groups of components, for compiling cost-estimating standards for equipment installation, for determining cost estimates for materials, structural members, and the use of construction machinery, for developing quotas for limited and other expenditures, and for determining overall construction costs.
The Construction Code is revised periodically by chapters. Improvements made are based on research in the construction field and experience gained in the design, construction, and maintenance of buildings and structures. Appropriate changes and additions are incorporated into existing chapters.
Individual design and construction problems may be governed not only by the Construction Code but also by various standards (for example, those concerning the assignment of land and construction deadlines), by rules (such as those dealing with planning and surveying contracts), by instructions (for example, those regulating the execution of certain types of construction work), and by similar documents.
REFERENCEStroitel’nye normy i pravila, part 1, ch. 1: Sistema normativnykhdokumentov. Moscow, 1975.
A. F. IVANOV