Contemplation


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Contemplation

 

a sensory stage of knowledge.

In the idealist tradition of philosophy, there are two basic conceptions of contemplation, both directly related to the notion of intuition. One interpretation originated with Plato, who regarded contemplation as the extrasensory knowledge of ideas and the basis of “true” knowledge. The other interpretation was developed by Kant, who juxtaposed contemplation to both thought and sensations and treated it as the concept of a single object, the concept which is to undergo categorization in cognition. E. Husserl’s phenomenology considers both types of contemplation: empirical contemplation, or consciousness of a particular object, and eidetic contemplation, the object of which is essence (eidos).

Pre-Marxist materialism interpreted cognition as contemplation, a passive process of perceiving the external world, which acts on the sense organs. K. Marx wrote: “The chief defect of all previous materialism—that of Feuerbach included—is that things, reality, sensuousness are conceived only in the form of the object, or of contemplation, but not as human sensuous activity or practice, not subjectively” (in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 1).

Marxism has shown that cognition is not passive contemplation but an activity inextricably linked with transforming the world.

Contemplation

Compleat Angler, The
Izaak Walton’s classic treatise on the Contemplative Man’s Recreation. [Br. Lit.: The Compleat Angler]
Thinker, The
sculpture by Rodin, depicting contemplative man. [Fr. Art: Osborne, 988]
References in periodicals archive ?
Contemplation is the work of love, and the contemplative proves his love by leaving all things, even the most spiritual things, for God in nothingness, detachment, and "night.
In the fourth chapter, contemplation on the Karma, the law of cause and effect, discussed.
Moreover, as Merton noted in The Inner Experience, contemplation should not be thought of as a separate department of the soul but rather as a "solid foundation for every other human striving" (152).
Proceeding from Pre-contemplation through Contemplation into Preparation (or Active Planning) and then onto Action is a complex process for most people.
Le changement de rythme de la poesie hugolienne, effectue par la contemplation cosmique, aurait ete facilite par les Tables Parlantes.
Contemplation begins when the life of prayer starts to be dominated by the Holy Spirit.
He writes that "jealousy is properly restricted to contexts involving affairs of the heart, envy is used more broadly of resentful contemplation of a more fortunate person.
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16) It is specially noteworthy that Manuzio proclaims the possession and contemplation of antiquities to surpass even the reading of ancient authors as a means of knowing the past: "looking in tently at such objects, one gathers in the mind as much knowledge in a short span of hours as one does after years of reading Livy and Polybius, and all the ancient historians put together.
A contemplation which is not escapism but sees God in everything, God in the midst, God in the mess, God in the mystery of transformation.
The stages of change are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and relapse.
The 36-year-old performance artist from London agreed to be interviewed after being warned that a spell of contemplation could wipe him off TV news bulletins.