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cooling pond[′kül·iŋ ‚pänd]
a natural or artificial open reservoir used to cool the hot circulating water in the circulating water supply systems of steam power plants or industrial enterprises. The water is cooled in the pond chiefly through evaporation and convective heat transfer (water to air). The temperature of the cooled water depends on meteorological conditions—the temperature and humidity of the atmospheric air, the general cloud cover, and the wind speed—and on the temperature of the incoming hot water.
Cooling ponds are relatively simple to operate, and during the greater part of the year, especially in the winter, they can provide a lower water temperature than other coolers. With a cooling pond there is no need to lift the water to a substantial height, as, for example, with cooling towers; thus less electrical power is expended in driving the circulating pumps. A disadvantage is the relatively low specific heat transfer from the pond’s surface, a fact that necessitates the creation of a considerable surface area for the pond.
River floodplains that can be spanned by dams are used in the construction of cooling ponds, as are lakes and dike-enclosed areas outside of watercourses.
V. A. GLADKOV