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(invertebrate zoology)
An order of Crustacea commonly included in the Entomostraca; contains free-living, parasitic, and symbiotic forms.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an order of invertebrate animals of the class Crustacea. Copepoda are from 0.1 to 13 mm in size. A streamlined body with strongly developed extremities, which carry long falling antennules, is characteristic for Copepoda living mainly in the water, whereas Copepoda living near the bottom have thickened bodies and short extremities. Parasitic Copepoda have strongly adapted bodies in accordance with their modes of existence. Copepoda show various colorations. Specific (copepodan) stages of metamorphoses are characteristic of the Copepoda; they occur after the nauplius stage. Copepoda are distributed everywhere, in sea and fresh water. In the sea they constitute up to 90 percent of the plankton. Copepoda, particularly the large types of the calanides (Calanus finmarchicus, C. plumchrus, Eucalanus bungii, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and others) and the cyclopeds (Oithinia similis), have great practical significance, as feed for many commercial fish (herring, sardines, anchovies, and sprats) and for the young of almost all fish. In addition, Copepoda feed the baleen whale. A genus of Copepoda (the Cyclopes) are the intermediate hosts for certain worms (tapeworms and round worms) that are parasitical to humans and can cause serious illnesses, such as guinea worm. Certain maritime Copepoda are parasites on worms, ascidians, fish, and whales. The freshwater varieties are parasites on fish and often cause massive kills in the pond and lake fish industry.


Zhizn’ presnykh vod SSSR, vol. 1. Edited by V. I. Zhadin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
V. A. Dogel’. Zoologiia bespozvonochnykh, 5th ed. Moscow, 1959.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Juvenile pikeperch, perch, and ruffe consumed on average 0.2, 0.7, and 0.4 mg copepods per 1 g fish body mass; and 1.6, 5.3, and 3.4 mg cladocerans per 1 g fish body mass, respectively.
I chose a copepod as the subject, not only to represent one of the key organisms in my research, but also to bring awareness to and appreciation of the often-ignored, humble beauty of microscopic life.
Tropical copepods form a large part of zooplankton biomass and are therefore important drivers of zooplankton productivity, but the impact of physical and biological variables on copepod community structure is poorly known in the ETPM.
Some widely distributed taxa dominated the zooplankton community in the three sectors, such as polychaete larvae, cirriped larvae, the larval stages of copepods, and the copepod Oithona spp.
Copepods were placed at low densities (<10 individuals [L.sup.-1]) in 0.2-[micro]m filtered in situ water and were maintained in a dark incubator at 20 [degrees]C (temperature at the chlorophyll a maximum) for 1 h to allow for gut clearance and acclimatization (Bautista and Harris, 1992; Irigoien, 1998).
Two species of caligid copepods (Crustacea) parasitic on marine fishes of Venezuela, with discussion of Metacaligus Thomsen, 1949.
insignis worms, we conducted exposures using copepods infected with larvae originating from 2 female worms at 2 different times (i.e., 5 fish per day for 3 days in April 2016 and another 5 fish per day for 3 days in July 2016, resulting in exposure to [approximately equal to] 300 copepods) (Table).
In this work, we assessed whether size-structure by itself can predict grazing impact of copepods on primary production in two highly productive coastal upwelling sites off Chile.
The full multiscale model presented in this paper is based on monitoring the dynamics of ten populations at any time t, which are susceptible humans [S.sub.H](t) and infected humans [I.sub.H](t) in the behavioural human environment; infected copepods [I.sub.C] in the human biological environment; mature Guinea worms [W.sub.M](t) and fertilized female Guinea worms [W.sub.F](t) in the biological human environment (within-host parasite dynamics); Guinea worm eggs [E.sub.W](t) and Guinea worm larvae [L.sub.W](t) in the physical water environment; susceptible copepods [S.sub.E](t) and infected copepods [I.sub.E](t) in the physical water environment; and gastric juice [G.sub.J](t) in the human biological environment.
Small crustaceans or copepods common parasites on the gills of aquarium and pond fish where they appear as white spots.
The bacteria attach to copepods, receiving more food and protection than "free-living" bacteria in the open ocean, and perhaps some advantageous transportation, too.