The relationship between coping strategies for IDEs and stress (see Table 2) noted a moderate, negative correlation between planful problem-solving coping (r=-0.33, p=0.002) and stress associated with HD, and a small negative correlation between stress associated with HD and positive reappraisal (r=-0.24, p=0.019).
Coping Strategies by Sex, Age, and Hemodialysis Vintage
Secure base and internal working models in attachment theory speak to the issue of coping development (Goldberg, 2014; Ptacek & Gross, 1997).
Further, attachment style highlights the working model of self and others--the individuals' evaluation of self and other relationships affects how they would cope with stress, particularly when seeking support is used as a way of coping. Research indicates that self-other relations differ significantly across cultures so that the development of an individual's attachment styles may vary across cultures (e.g., Agishtein & Brumbaugh, 2013).
Table-IV: Correlation of age, brief coping scale and self-report measure of emotional intelligence scaleamong caregivers of mentally ill patients (N = 100).
Table-V: Moderating role of age, gender and marital status in relationship of brief coping scale and self - report measure of emotional intelligence scaleamong caregivers of mentally ill patients (N = 100).
Next, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine whether gender or age differences existed on the variables of interest (e.g., perceived stress, coping).
Given that the Brief Coping Inventory (BCI) contains 2-item subscales, and Cronbach's alpha will sometimes underestimate substantially the reliability for two-item scales (Eisinga, Grotenhuis, & Pelzer, 2013), coefficient values equal to or greater than .60 were used to evaluate the internal consistency of the BCI subscales (Loewenthal, 2004).
A second dimension, emotion focused coping refers to strategies that regulate emotions and minimize distress triggered by stressors such as release/deselection (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010; Kaiseler et al., 2012).
A third dimension, avoidance or disengagement coping, represents attempts to escape from the threat, harm, or loss of a situation that is stressful, as well as associated thoughts and emotions (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010; Krohne, 1993; Nicholls & Polman, 2007).
In line with Carver's (2007) recommendation, and to reduce the number of coping
variables, a factor analysis of the 14 Brief COPE subscales was performed.
is conceptualised as cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage situations appraised as taxing or exceeding a person's resources.9 Coping
efforts are broadly categorised into problem-focussed coping
(PFC) and emotion-focussed coping