Corals


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Corals

 

coelenterate marine animals, primarily of the class Anthozoa and sometimes of the class Hydrozoa (of the suborder Hydrocorallia). Most corals form a calcareous or, less often, horny skeleton of varying shapes. Accumulations of madrepores form the basis of coral reefs. Coral is also the designation given to the skeletons of animals of the order Gorgonaria, such as red coral and black coral, from which necklaces and other types of jewelry are made.

References in classic literature ?
The curate took the coral beads from her neck and examined them again and again, and having satisfied himself as to their fineness he fell to wondering afresh, and said, "By the gown I wear I don't know what to say or think of these letters and presents; on the one hand I can see and feel the fineness of these coral beads, and on the other I read how a duchess sends to beg for a couple of dozen of acorns.
The curate and the bachelor could see plainly enough that the page spoke in a waggish vein; but the fineness of the coral beads, and the hunting suit that Sancho sent (for Teresa had already shown it to them) did away with the impression; and they could not help laughing at Sanchica's wish, and still more when Teresa said, "Senor curate, look about if there's anybody here going to Madrid or Toledo, to buy me a hooped petticoat, a proper fashionable one of the best quality; for indeed and indeed I must do honour to my husband's government as well as I can; nay, if I am put to it and have to, I'll go to Court and set a coach like all the world; for she who has a governor for her husband may very well have one and keep one.
She fled deeper, and I knew I had her for I was between her and the surface; but in the muck coral sand of the bottom she made a churning with her squid stick.
Not ten feet to the right, probing a coral fissure with her squid stick, was the Princess, and the tiger shark was heading directly for her.
I fended him off with both hands on his nose above his thousand-toothed open mouth, so that he backed me against the sharp coral.
The study comes less than two weeks after NOAA declared the third ever global coral bleaching event and warned that locally produced threats to coral, such as pollution, stress the health of corals and decrease the likelihood that they will resist bleaching, or recover from it.
Fragments cut from coral trees are anchored on hard bottom at designated restoration sites to help jump-start the recovery of staghorn and elkhorn corals in the Keys.
Bleached corals can recover by growing more algae or acquiring new algae once water temperatures return to normal.
Lead of the study and marine scientist from the Coral Reef Studies Centre of Excellence of Australian Research Council, Joe Pollock, stressed on the fact that to survive corals need both light and food.
He further explained that just like in any other organism, it seems that chronic stress can lead to increased levels of disease in corals.
Scientists have long known that corals have symbiotic relationships with photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae.
The development of full-grown boulder and mountain star corals can take decades, as it takes years for the corals to obtain enough calcium carbonate from the ocean for their skeletons to grow to full size.