Cordillera Oriental


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Related to Cordillera Oriental: Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Central

Cordillera Oriental

 

(also Eastern Cordillera of the Andes), mountain ranges which form the eastern fringes of the Andes mountain system.

In the Central Andean countries the term “Cordillera Oriental” has been applied to several mountain ranges, resulting in different readings on maps and in literature; it has been most firmly established as the name of mountains in the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador. Orographically the Cordillera Oriental is not a single mountain range, but structurally, along with the Cordillera Central, it does form a unified system of anticlinoria with Hercynian cores.

The Cordillera Oriental of Colombia extends from 1° 30’ to 9° N latitude as a large mountain range reaching an altitude of 5,493 m (Ritacuva). It declines sharply in the east to the level of the plains of the Orinoco River and the western edge of the Guiana Highlands and in the west to the basin of the Magdalena River. Extensive intermontane plains and hollows at altitudes of 2,500 to 3,500 m are characteristic of the central section (which is the broadest, with widths extending to 270 km). The range abruptly narrows and descends in the north (where it is called the Sierra de Perijá) and the south, where it becomes part of the Cordillera Central. It continues into Ecuador, where it is called the Cordillera Oriental or the Cordillera Real. In separate spurs and massifs the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador descends in the east to the Amazon Basin; in front of the western slopes lie the high intermontane “basins,” or depressions. Extinct and active volcanoes that have formed peaks as high as 5,897 m (the Cotopaxi volcano) are built up along the fracture lines. In the south, between 4° and 6° S latitude, the Cordillera Oriental is not orographically expressed. Its structures continue further into the Cordillera Central of northern Peru, the Cordilleras of southeastern Peru, and the Cordillera Real of Bolivia.

In northern Peru the term Cordillera Oriental is also applied to the Sub-Andean Cordilleras, folded mountain ranges of moderate altitude that frame the western Amazon Basin (5°-10° S latitude) and the eastern chains of Bolivia, which border upon the plains of Beni-Mamore (15°-19° S latitude) at an elevation to 4,051 m.

Throughout their entire length the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental face the wind (with precipitation ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 mm annually) and are deeply dissected by rivers and covered by evergreen forests (mountain tropical) with precisely delineated altitude zones. Only on the more arid northern and southern extremities and the western slopes are there mixed deciduous and evergreen forests and thin-forest areas. The snow line is located at an altitude of 4,400 to 5,000 m.

E. N. LUKASHOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
En la cuenca se ha documentado un espesor de 3000 a 3500 metros de depositos clasticos de origen continental y depositados en los ultimos 10 millones de anos como respuesta al levantamiento y erosion de la Cordillera Oriental.
bogotensis (n = 2) collected on the eastern flank of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia in Cundinamarca, municipio Fomeque in Chingaza National Natural Park (PNN) (Appendix 1).
Los estudios anteriores han llevado a que algunos autores consideren la hipotesis de una posible migracion regional de hidrocarburos de la Cordillera Oriental hacia la los Llanos Orientales como una forma de explicar el origen de los crudos pesados en el borde llanero y regiones circunvecinas (ANH, 2010; Bachu et al.
1], superior al encontrado por Kuhry (1988) en las turberas del paramo de Pena Negra en la cordillera oriental de Colombia, con valor promedio de 0,26 mm [ano.
ssp, habita la Cordillera Oriental, en los departamentos del Meta, Huila y Cauca (bota caucana), en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Oriental, hacia el rio Magdalena entre 1800 y 2100 m.
Ubicado en la region Centro Oriente de Colombia, sobre la Cordillera Oriental del Macizo Andino se encuentra el municipio de Santa Maria a 04[grados]51'48"N y 73[grados]16'04"0 (Fig.
The Tropical Pluviseasonal bioclimate is also found in some high, cold and subhumid localities in the puna and the Cordillera Oriental range between 2450 and 4150 m asl.
Se seleccionaron 13 apiarios con bosques andinos dentro de su area de influencia (menos de 1 km de radio), localizados en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia, en los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Boyaca y Santander, entre los 2500 y 3500 msnm (tabla 1, figura 1).
La poblacion mas grande y contigua de osos de anteojos en el Peru se localiza en la ladera oriental de la cordillera oriental (Peyton 1999), la cual atraviesa la parte norte del departamento de Puno, y donde se ha reportado la presencia del oso andino en la provincia de Sandia (Grimwood 1969, Peyton 1980).
Comprende seis unidades morfoestructurales que son: la cordillera Occidental, la cordillera Oriental, la superficie puna, la vertiente del valle fluvial, las depresiones interandinas del rio Maranon y sus afluentes, y la depresion oriental del rio Monzon y sus afluentes (ver Fotos 1 y 2 y Mapas 2 y 3).
Constituido por la Cordillera Oriental, Geoanticlinal del Maranon y Noroeste peruano.