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a genus of annual herbaceous plants of the family Umbelliferae. There are two species, native to the Mediterranean Region. One species is found in the USSR. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) thrives in Transcaucasia, Asia Minor, the Crimea, Middle Asia, Southern Europe, North Africa, and America. In the USSR it grows in central chernozem regions, the Volga Region, the Ukraine, and the Northern Caucasus.
The stem measures up to 120 cm long, and the leaves are two or three times pinnately dissected. The white or pink flowers are in compound umbels. The globose fruits have two seeds and contain 0.2–1.4 percent essential oil and 16–28 percent fatty oil. Fragrant substances are obtained from the linalool in the essential oil (up to 75 percent), which are used in production of perfume, candy, beer, and vodka liqueur. The fatty oil has industrial uses.
The young plants are used in food as an herb. The fruits are used in pickled foods, candies, bread, and canned foods. Formerly, the fruits were used in medicine to improve digestion; however, in modern medicine Coriandrum has no significance. The oilseed meal is used as fodder. Coriandrum is nectar-bearing, producing 200 kg or more of honey per hectare (ha).
In 1972 approximately 320,000 ha of Coriandrum were planted throughout the world; in the USSR the area allotted to these plants was 160,000 ha (average yield of 8.12 centners per ha). On the leading farms the yield reaches 15–18 centners or more per hectare. The best varieties are Alekseevskii 247, Luch, and Smena.
REFERENCESKoriandr. Edited by N. S. Palamar’ and A. A. Khotin. Moscow, 1953.
Efiromaslichnye kul’tury. Edited by A. A. Khotin and G. T. Shul’gin. Moscow, 1963.
I. A. LUK’IANOV