Coriolis effect(redirected from Coriolis forces)
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Coriolis effect(kôr'ē-ō`lĭs) [for G.-G. de Coriolis, a French mathematician], tendency for any moving body on or above the earth's surface, e.g., an ocean current or an artillery round, to drift sideways from its course because of the earth's rotation. In the Northern Hemisphere the deflection is to the right of the motion; in the Southern Hemisphere it is to the left. The Coriolis deflection of a body moving toward the north or south results from the fact that the earth's surface is rotating eastward at greater speed near the equator than near the poles, since a point on the equator traces out a larger circle per day than a point on another latitude nearer either pole. A body traveling toward the equator with the slower rotational speed of higher latitudes tends to fall behind or veer to the west relative to the more rapidly rotating earth below it at lower latitudes. Similarly, a body traveling toward either pole veers eastward because it retains the greater eastward rotational speed of the lower latitudes as it passes over the more slowly rotating earth closer to the pole. It is extremely important to account for the Coriolis effect when considering projectile trajectories, terrestrial wind systems, and ocean currents.
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Coriolis effect[kȯr·ē′ō·ləs i′fekt]
Also known as Coriolis deflection.
The deflection relative to the earth's surface of any object moving above the earth, caused by the Coriolis force; an object moving horizontally is deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, to the left in the Southern.
The effect of the Coriolis force in any rotating system.
The physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, and so on) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
i. The apparent effect of a number of forces that act upon a body or particle set in motion on the earth's surface, tending to divert the moving object to the right of its path in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. A correction must be made when navigation relative to the earth is considered. See Coriolis force.
ii. The change in rotor blade velocity to compensate for a change in the distance between the center of mass of the rotor blade and the axis of rotation of the blade as the blades flap in flight. Rotor blades accelerate when their center of gravity moves closer to the center of rotation and decelerate when it moves farther away. Rotor blades accelerate and decelerate accompanied with the rotor blades flapping.
iii. The displacement of the apparent horizon, as defined by the bubble in a sextant by acceleration, caused by an aircraft flying in a nonlinear path in space.
iv. The tendency of a mass to increase or decrease its angular velocity when its radius of rotation is changed. More correctly called the conservation of angular momentum.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved