Coronary Circulation

(redirected from Coronary vessel)
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Coronary Circulation

 

the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by the intercommunicating arteries and veins that run throughout the myocardium.

In man, arterial blood is supplied mainly by the right and left coronary arteries, which begin at the base of the aorta. There are three types of blood supply—right coronary, left coronary, and general—which in some measure determine the nature of the pathology of the coronary circulation in the event of disease of the heart vessels. The coronary veins are both larger and greater in number than the arteries. The veins empty into the right atrium. The principal arterial and venous trunks are connected by a well-developed network of anastomoses, which facilitates collateral (shunt) circulation in cases of impairment of blood supply to the heart.

The great intensity of the blood supply to the myocardium is provided by a dense network of capillaries (approximately twice the number per unit volume than in the skeletal muscles). The level of the coronary circulation in a healthy body corresponds exactly to the force and frequency of the heartbeat. It is regulated both by physical factors (for example, blood pressure in the aorta) and by neural and humoral mechanisms. Coronary circulation is influenced by physical and mental condition and by the degree and character of stress or load. It is sharply impaired by nicotine and certain factors that lead to atherosclerosis, hyper-tension, and cardiac ischemia, such as overstrain of the nervous system, negative emotions, improper nutrition, and the absence of constant physical excercise. Coronary insufficiency and disturbances of coronary circulation are among the most frequent causes of death in economically developed countries, and there-fore their prevention and treatment (mainly of infarction) are the most pressing problems of modern medicine.

I. M. D’IAKONOVA and S. V. SAMOILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
As the heart beats faster and harder, the coronary vessels open up and supply the additional blood flow that is required to feed the heart's increased demand.
The results of this study demonstrate that the newly developed integrated technique of vessel segmentation, plaque detection and 3D visualization of blood flow is useful for an accurate assignment of coronary vessel segments, and suggest that it may be helpful to improve the interpretative and decision-making process in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.
In clinical practice, electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria is used to differentiate STEMI from NSTEMI, but ECG has been shown to have a very low sensitivity in detecting acute MI (AMI)11 and thus occlusion of a coronary vessel. It has been shown in various studies that in NSTEMI, angiography may reveal totally occluded coronary arteries (OCAs), further reinforcing that coronary artery occlusion can occur despite the absence of ST elevation in standard 12-lead ECG.12 Studies have shown that in patients with NSTEMI, myocardial function deteriorates and the damage becomes irreversible as the time to angiography and re-vascularisation increases, especially in those who have occluded coronaries on angiogram.13
However, a study of over one hundred harvested human hearts with silicon infusion of the coronary vessels and video acquisition of flow and distribution showed vasa vasorum feeding penetrating vessels as far as the inner layers of the media [1].
Patients with diseased coronary artery segment (it could underestimate the coronary vessel diameter) ; Radio Contrast allergy (dangerous for patient); Ectatic vessels (it might overestimate the real diameter of coronary artery);
CAE is the abnormal dilatation of coronary arteries such that the ectatic segment exceeds the diameter of the normal adjacent segments or the diameter of the patient's largest coronary vessel by 1.5 times.
Evidence of coronary vessel wall thickening in asymptomatic young HIV positive patients using MR imaging of HIV-associated vasculopathy.
insert a guide catheter through the sheath so that its distal tip lies at the entrance to a coronary vessel; 3.
One noninvasive way of measuring ASCVD and plaque burden is to image calcification within the coronary vessel. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is present in atherosclerotic plaque and is usually the tip of the atherosclerotic iceberg.
A coronary vessel was defined as abnormal if its diameter was greater than 3 mm in a child younger than 3 years, greater than 3.5 mm in a child aged 3-5 years, greater than 4 mm in a child aged 5-11 years, and greater than 5 mm in a child older than 11 years.
In a coronary bypass operation, surgeons graft a segment of a blood vessel taken from another part of the body, like the leg, onto a clogged coronary vessel. Their aim: to reroute or "bypass" blood flow around the blockage like a detour around a traffic jam.
From January through March 1997, 99 subjects (82 men and 17 women) were enrolled after undergoing cardiac catheterization for symptoms or stress tests compatible with myocardial ischemia and found to have a stenotic lesion of >50% in at least one major coronary vessel (left anterior descending, left circumflex, or right coronary arteries).