coronavirus

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coronavirus,

any of a group (family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae) of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that have a crownlike or sunlike appearance under an electron microscope due to the presence of spikes on their surface. Coronaviruses infect mammals (including humans) and birds, mainly in the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Most only infect a single species or closely related species; a number of coronaviruses can have significant effects on farm animals, especially poultry.

In humans the most prevalent coronaviruses are those that are responsible for varieties of the common coldcold, common,
acute viral infection of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, often involving the sinuses. The typical sore throat, sneezing, and fatigue may be accompanied by body aches, headache, low fever, and chills.
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; coronaviruses are estimated to cause as many as 30% of all colds. More serious are the coronaviruses responsible for SARSSARS
or severe acute respiratory syndrome,
communicable viral disease that can progress to a potentially fatal pneumonia. The first symptoms of SARS are usually a high fever, headache and body aches, sore throat, and mild respiratory symptoms; diarrhea may occur.
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 (severe acute respiratory syndrome), SARSCoV, and for MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), MERSCoV; outbreaks caused by infections with these viruses, which can affect both humans and animals, have resulted in signficant deaths. The SARS outbreak began in China in 2002 and spread globally in 2003; some 9% of those infected died. The first identified MERS outbreak originated in 2012 in Saudi Arabia (the virus appears to be common in dromedary camels); the most significant outbreak outside Saudi Arabia occurred in South Korea in 2015 and was traced to an individual who had visited the Middle East. MERS has killed roughly 40% of those people who are known to be infected, but infections have been relatively rare. Most known cases of MERS have quickly progressed to serious respiratory illness, with fever, cough, pneumonia, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. Many MERS patients have also had diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms; kidney failure has sometimes occurred. Older individuals appear to be particularly susceptible. Although there has been person-to-person transmission, MERSCoV (unlike the SARS virus) does not appear to be highly contagious in humans.

Human coronaviruses appear to spread mainly through droplets in the air resulting from coughing or sneezing, or through close contact with an infected person or a contaminated object or surface. There are no vaccines or treatment for coronaviruses; care consists mainly in alleviating symptoms and preventing the viruses' transmission through handwashing and other measures. The first coronavirus, an infectious bronchitis virus of birds, was identified in the 1930s; the first human coronaviruses, associated with the common cold, were identified in the 1960s.

coronavirus

[kə¦rō·nə¦vī·rəs]
(virology)
A major group of animal viruses including avian infectious bronchitis virus and mouse hepatitis virus.

coronavirus

a type of airborne virus accounting for 10-30% of all colds
References in periodicals archive ?
A family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections related to a likely unrecognized asymptomatic or mild case.
Evidence of person-to-person transmission within a family cluster of novel coronavirus infections, United Kingdom, February 2013.
Health: confirms Bahrain is free of coronavirus infections.
Noureddine Ben Achour, Director General of the National Observatory of New and Emerging Diseases said 43 cases of Coronavirus infections was reported in the world, including two cases in Tunisia, and 20 deaths.
Dr Abdallah Assaedi, the representative of WHO in Muscat, said there are no recorded cases of novel coronavirus infections in Oman.
Since then, health authorities across the UAE have been coordinating with one another, as well as other organisations in the UAE, to monitor any cases of coronavirus infections, as reported by Gulf News earlier.
More research is needed, but the current study is an important step toward understanding a link between respiratory disease and gastrointestinal disease in coronavirus infections, he said.
McIntosh pointed out some "tantalizing facts": onset of Kawasaki disease is often preceded by a respiratory syndrome; both the disease and respiratory coronavirus infections are seasonal, peaking in the winter and spring; recent studies have described a powerful immune response in the respiratory tract and other organs in acute cases of Kawasaki disease, suggesting the involvement of a specific microbe that may enter the body through the respiratory tract; and finally, as the emergence of SARS illustrates, coronaviruses "are capable of enormously varied pathogenicity.
In certain animal coronavirus infections, however, antibody responses may produce an antibody-dependent enhancement of disease.
Several animal coronaviruses have been known to cause serious disease including avian infectious bronchitis virus of chickens and coronavirus infections of rats (Brooks and others 2001).
Although no additional coronavirus infections have been documented among other U.
With further development, these results suggest this NEUGENE agent may become an effective therapeutic against a broad range of coronavirus infections.