charter

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charter,

document granting certain rights, powers, or functions. It may be issued by the sovereign body of a state to a local governing body, university, or other corporation or by the constituted authority of a society or order to a local unit. The term was widely applied to various royal grants of rights in the Middle Ages and in early modern times. The most famous political charter is the Magna CartaMagna Carta
or Magna Charta
[Lat., = great charter], the most famous document of British constitutional history, issued by King John at Runnymede under compulsion from the barons and the church in June, 1215.
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 of England. Chartered companies held broad powers of trade and government by royal charter. In colonial America, chartered colonies were in theory, and to an extent in fact, less subject to royal interference than were royal colonies.

Charter

 

(ustav), a body of rules regulating the structure, procedures, and activities of a state agency, enterprise, or institution or of a particular field of activity. Charters in the USSR include the Rules of Railroads of the USSR and the Statute on Secondary General-education Schools. Charters also regulate the armed forces of the USSR (see). Most charters are approved by the highest bodies of state authority in the USSR; the charters of some institutions and organizations are approved by the appropriate ministries and departments. Voluntary sports societies, the various artists’ unions, dacha-building and housing-construction cooperatives, and other organizations are also governed by charters.

Most international organizations have charters that outline their goals, organizational structure, and activities, for example, the Charter of the United Nations.

charter

1. a formal document from the sovereign or state incorporating a city, bank, college, etc., and specifying its purposes and rights
2. a formal document granting or demanding from the sovereign power of a state certain rights or liberties
3. the fundamental principles of an organization; constitution
4. 
a. the hire or lease of transportation
b. the agreement or contract regulating this
c. (as modifier): a charter flight
5. a law, policy, or decision containing a loophole which allows a specified group to engage more easily in an activity considered undesirable
6. Maritime law another word for charterparty
References in periodicals archive ?
However, Justice Ginsburg's citation of Chief Justice Marshall did nothing to show that a corporation that explicitly acknowledges a religious mission in its corporate charter should not have that religious aspect respected by the law.
From Dartmouth College, involving the protection of a corporate charter as a contract, to Santa Clara, involving the protection of the property interests of railroad corporations, the context remained a question of contract and property.
In Part I we briefly describe the ways in which legal systems may ascribe corporate location, provide background on the mechanics of corporate migration, and introduce a moderately formal way of describing tax-induced distortions to the corporate charter market.
Early corporate charters were very explicit about what a corporation could do, how, for how long, with whom, where, and when.
But Delaware has little contact with these corporations besides being the jurisdiction that provides the corporate charter.
Possibly the most visible and growing arm of this anticorporate movement is the one that focuses on the corporate charter, the basic instrument that defines and creates corporations in the United States.
In 2000, after a protest by the New York State Building and Construction Trades Council, the State of New York cancelled a $790,000 welfare-to-work contract with Construction Force Services, a New York-based temporary employment services, citing, among other reasons, a state Department of Labor determination that the company no longer had a valid corporate charter, since the company failed to comply with state tax law.
The Arkansas Court of Appeals has held that "officers and directors of a corporation who actively participate in its operation during the time when the corporate charter is revoked for failure to pay corporate franchise taxes are individually liable for debts incurred during the period of revocation.
District Judge Norman Moon struck down the state law as unconstitutional and ordered the Virginia State Corporation Commission to grant Thomas Road a corporate charter.
This finding introduces the possibility of "overreaching" in the corporate charter marketplace and suggests potential limits on the race to the bottom.
To protect the health of the people and to prevent the public mischief that is being done, I urge you to bring a quo warranto civil action against the Cleveland Clinic revoking their corporate charter.
A corporate charter bestows an extraordinary privilege--exemption from common law rules of personal responsibility.

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