Following Zhu and Suzuki (2016), we identified the muscle activity of the corrugator supercilii muscle and zygomaticus major muscle.
Overall, fEMG responses collected from the corrugator supercilii muscle were available for 59 participants (19 males, 40 females), of which 26 were in the control condition and 33 were in the suppression condition; and those collected from the zygomaticus major muscle were available for 58 participants (17 males, 41 females), of which 30 were in the control condition and 28 were in the suppression condition.
To examine the specified change of activities over the corrugator supercilii muscle, another 3 x 3 x 6 x 2 (valence x arousal x time series x condition) mixed-design ANOVA was also conducted for the first 300 ms in 50 ms intervals after stimulus onset only (Figure 2).
Extra one-sample t-tests were applied to the activity of the corrugator supercilii muscle during the 0-300 ms period to confirm the increase in muscle activities (Table 2).
Overall, fEMG responses for the corrugator supercilii muscle were available for 51 participants (14 males, 37females), of which 24 were in the control condition and 27 were in the suppression condition.
Post hoc tests showed that, during all 3 periods, activity in the corrugator supercilii muscle for unpleasant stimuli were greater than activities in responding to neutral (0-300 ms, p = .
Post hoc tests indicated that, during the 600-900 ms period, the corrugator supercilii muscle showed greater activity in response to high arousal stimuli than in response to low arousal stimuli (p=.
Especially, the activities from the corrugator supercilii muscle 150 ms after the stimulus onset draws our attention since these responses are similar to the control condition and suppression condition, and fit our hypothesis well.
However, the whole muscle activity changes in the zygomaticus major muscle are more gradual than that of the corrugator supercilii muscle.
In summary, previous research studies on the muscle activity from the corrugator supercilii muscle and zygomaticus major muscle suggest that the first response to the stimulus occurs between the first 150 ms after the stimulus onset, which means that the intention of consciously concealing would not work on a reflexive expression.
Overall, the time course of recovery and the finding of faster recovery of corrugator supercilii muscles in response to a standard dosage of mivacurium in our patient are within the range of published data from patients without myopathies (3).
Simultaneous determination of neuromuscular block at the larynx, diaphragm, adductor pollicis, orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles.