Corticosteroids


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Related to Corticosteroids: prednisone, Topical corticosteroids
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Corticosteroids

 

biologically active tetracyclic compounds manufactured by the adrenal cortex.

More than 40 compounds have been isolated from the adrenals. Eight of these are active, that is, they can reproduce the effect of adrenocortical extract, known as cortine naturelle (first obtained in 1927). Chemically, the active corticosteroids are pregnane derivatives containing the Δ4-3-keto- and 20-keto-21 hydroxy groups and with oxygen substitutes at the 11C, 17C, or 18C atom. True adrenal hormones include the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, which mostly regulates the metabolism of K+ and Na+ ions; the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, or cortisol, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism; and corticosterone (17-deoxyhydrocortisone), which performs both of these functions. Cortexone (11-deoxycorticosterone) is a mineralocorticoid. Cortisone is a glucocorticoid. The corticosteroids also participate in the regulation of protein metabolism and fat metabolism. A corticosteroid deficiency results in Addison’s disease. The symptoms of the Itsenko-Cushing syndrome appear when the same hormones are in excess.

The formation, metabolism, and mode of excretion of corticosteroids are species-specific. In the human body, 15–25 mg of hydrocortisone, 1–5 mg of corticosterone, and 0.1–0.2 mg of aldosterone are manufactured daily. In some animals (for example, monkeys, sheep, and guinea pigs) the adrenal cortex produces mainly hydrocortisone. In others (rabbits and rats) it produces mostly corticosterone. Cholesterol is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the corticosteroids. The secretion of corticosteroids is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is produced by the pituitary. Some of the corticosteroids in the blood are bound to plasma proteins. They are inactivated in the liver by partial reduction and binding by glucuronic and sulfuric acids. The corticosteroids and their metabolic products are rapidly excreted from the body, mainly with urine.

The corticosteroids are used in substitution therapy and as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agents in the treatment of many diseases. Synthetic dehydro, hydroxy, halogen, and methyl derivatives of the corticosteroids (prednisone, dexamethazone, triamcinolone, Synalar) have also found practical application, since they are much more active biologically and produce fewer side effects.

REFERENCES

Iudaev, N. A. Biokhimiia steroidnykh gormonov kory nadpochechnikov. Moscow, 1956.
Komissarenko, V. P. Gormony kory nadpochechnikov i ikh roV vfiziologicheskikh i patologicheskikh protsessakh organizma. Kiev, 1956.
Fieser, L., and M. Fieser. Steroidy. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)

M. A. KREKHOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Allergic contact dermatitis from corticosteroids: reproducibility of patch testing and correlation with intradermal testing.
Corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a serious complication of systemic corticosteroid administration for treatment of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), nephrotic syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.
There was no history of trauma, systemic corticosteroid therapy, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, transplantation, hyperlipidemia, significant hyperuricemia or hyperparathyroidism.
Predicting how people will respond to corticosteroid therapy could significantly reduce the suffering of many patients, Wenzel said.
reported three cases of post-herpetic neuralgia getting benefit from streptomycin-lidocaine injections.22 These beneficial effects of streptomycin are due to inhibition of release of acetylcholine at the nerve endings and neuronal stabilisation.21,22 Moreover, side effect of streptomycin injection is minimal and pain caused by solution deposition is decreased by adding local anaesthetic to solve.22 This led us to believe that streptomycin should be used with corticosteroids and lignocaine to effectively relieve sympthomatic painful conditions.
To our knowledge, in Pakistan limited data is available regarding the options for effective management of AC, therefore we designed this study to compare the IA corticosteroid versus physiotherapy in the management of AC in terms of mean pain score.
Two RCTs of 173 patients gave low-quality evidence to show no difference between corticosteroids and NSAIDs in the rate of treatment response in the short term(relative risk, 1.07; 95 percent CI, 0.80-1.44; moderate heterogeneity P=15,12=53 percent).
As per the demographic data obtained, out of the total 187 inpatients who were prescribed with corticosteroids, 41.7% (n = 78) were male patients, and 58.3% (n = 109) were female patients (Figure 1).
Westcott, "Corticosteroids in Ocular Syphilis," Ophthalmology, vol.
Corticosteroid use is the most common cause of ONFH, and the stage at diagnosis was earlier than those in other groups.[1] There is an obvious dose-duration-response relationship between corticosteroids and ONFH, although it is disputable.
"Our study finds that antenatal (before birth) corticosteroids given to pregnant women only hours before delivery were associated with a survival advantage for their infants", says Mikael Norman, lead author, neonatologist and professor at Karolinska Institutet's Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
Corticosteroids have been demonstrated to cause local vasoconstriction and skin blanching followed by rebound vasodilation, and the observed skin changes can be evidence of corticosteroid bioavailability.

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