plastic surgery

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plastic surgery,

surgical repair of congenital or acquired deformities and the restoration of contour to improve the appearance and function of tissue defects. Development of this specialized branch of surgery received impetus from the need to repair gross deformities sustained in World War IWorld War I,
1914–18, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.
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. By the grafting of tissue or the use of artificial materials such as siliconesilicone,
polymer in which atoms of silicon and oxygen alternate in a chain; various organic radicals, such as the methyl group, CH3, are bound to the silicon atoms.
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, some remarkable restorations have become possible. Severe burns and the removal of fairly extensive skin cancersskin cancer,
malignant tumor of the skin. The most common types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Rarer forms include mycosis fungoides (a type of lymphoma) and Kaposi's sarcoma.
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 leave scars that must be covered by skin grafts; breast reconstruction after mastectomymastectomy
, surgical removal of breast tissue, usually done as treatment for breast cancer. There are many types of mastectomy. In general, the farther the cancer has spread, the more tissue is taken.
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 is another application.

In addition to correcting a disfigurement, plastic surgery is often needed to restore vital movement and function of tissues that have been destroyed. It is also performed for purely cosmetic purposes, such as improving the shape of a nose, bringing outstanding ears closer to the head, or lifting the skin to erase wrinkles, and the term cosmetic surgery is often used to refer to such surgical procedures. Modern plastic surgeons often employ CAT scansCAT scan
[computerized axial tomography], X-ray technique that allows relatively safe, painless, and rapid diagnosis in previously inaccessible areas of the body; also called CT scan.
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 to produce computer-generated images that are used to plan or simulate complex reconstructive surgeries, and 3D printers3D printer,
computerized device that produces a three-dimensional object by creating it as a series of thin layers. The object is created from a model stored in computer-aided design file; the model is sliced into hundreds or thousands of very thin horizontal layers using
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 have been used to create implants for such surgeries.

Surgery, Plastic

 

(also reconstructive surgery), a branch of surgery devoted to the restoration of the function and shape of partially or completely detached organs, correction of congenital or acquired abnormalities and deformities, and elimination of cosmetic defects. The biological basis of plastic surgery is the ability of flap tissue (for example, skin and skin-muscle-bone) and organs (for example, a kidney) transplanted on a pedicle or free from their original base to grow in new sites. Besides the patient’s own tissues, tissues from another person or an animal, cadaver tissue, and various inorganic materials (plastic and metal) may be used.

In the broad sense of the term, plastic surgery is employed in all surgical specialties: heart surgery (for example, valve prosthesis), surgery on digestive organs (for example, repair of the esophagus with tissue from the small intestine), traumatology and orthopedics (for example, replacement of tendons, osteoplasty), urology (for example, restoration of the penis and urethra), maxillofacial surgery (for example, operations for congenital harelip and cleft palate), otorhinolaryngology (for example, operations to improve hearing in otosclerosis), and ophthalmology (for example, corneal transplant).

In the narrow sense of the term, plastic surgery refers to operations on the body surface involving the transplantation of skin flaps, the repair of skin with a free skin flap, or the construction of a circular skin pedicle (V. P. Filatov’s rope flap); such operations make it possible to cover tissue defects with skin flaps transplanted from another part of the body. Operations on the body surface usually have a cosmetic aim as well. Some operations are performed solely for cosmetic purposes, for example, removal of wrinkles from the face and neck, skin folds from the abdomen, pigment spots, and deformities due to scars. The shape of the nose, lips, and ears may also be altered for cosmetic purposes. Noncosmetic plastic surgery is performed in general surgical or specialized medical institutions, whereas cosmetic surgery is performed in specialized hospitals or institutes of cosmetic surgery.

REFERENCES

Shimanovskii, Iu. Operatsii na poverkhnosti chelovecheskogo tela. Kiev, 1865.
Kartashev, Z. I. Vosstanovitel’naia khirurgiia litsa. Rostov-on-Don, 1935.
Eitner, E. Kosmeticheskie operatsii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from German.)
Bogoraz, N. A. Vosstanovitel’naia khirurgiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1949.
Rauer, A. E., and N. M. Mikhel’son. Plasticheskie operatsii na litse, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1954.
Khitrov, F. M. Plasticheskoe zameshchenie defektov litsa i shei filatovskim steblem. Moscow, 1954.
Blokhin, N. N. Kozhnaia plastika. Moscow, 1955.
Peškova, H. Plasticheskie operatsii pri kosmeticheskikh defektakh. Prague, 1971. (Translated from Czech.)
Povstianoi, N. E. Vosstanovitel’naia khirurgiia ozhogov. Moscow, 1973.
Kol’gunenko, I. I. Osnovy gerontokosmetologii. Moscow, 1974.

R. I. KVASNOI

plastic surgery

[′plas·tik ′sər·jə·rē]
(medicine)
Surgical repair, replacement, or alteration of lost, injured, or deformed parts of the body by transfer of tissue.

plastic surgery

the branch of surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic repair or re-formation of missing, injured, or malformed tissues or parts
References in periodicals archive ?
The most common cosmetic surgical procedures were liposuction (74%), abdominoplasty (58%), and breast implantation (32%); all procedures occurred during March-November 2013 (Figure), and illness onsets occurred during April-November 2013.
Doctors said the top cosmetic surgical procedures for men, apart from liposuction and hair transplantation, are rhinoplasty (nose reshaping), blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) and gynecomastic (breast reduction).
Thailand hospitals feature 24-hour nursing care, and staff are experienced in assisting foreign patients, with more than 30 hospitals employing specialised English speaking staff and many providing translators in a wide variety of foreign languages, including Arabic."Some of the most popular medical treatments in Thailand include cosmetic surgical procedures, such as liposuction, facelifts, chin augmentation and cheek implants.
To what other cosmetic surgical procedures on children are the "personal preferences and feelings" of the parents considered relevant?
According to the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, in 2009, nearly 10 million cosmetic surgical procedures were performed in the United States, down only 2 percent from 2008 despite the recession.
"The growth in cosmetic surgical procedures for men may be a product of our aging baby boomers who are now ready to have plastic surgery," said ASPS president Phillip Haeck.
(2.) British Association of Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery, Over 32,400 cosmetic surgical procedures in the UK in 2007, Press release, 4 February 2008.
"In the current climate it is even more important that patients seeking cosmetic surgical procedures do not make decisions based solely on price."
This new total eye care concept expands conventional centers (diagnostic and treatment) to include a full service retail eyewear boutique with lab, a state licensed Ambulatory Surgery Center, and accommodations for elective cosmetic surgical procedures.
The Advanced Pre/Post Formula, which includes two phases, "supports medical aesthetic procedures to minimize bruising and swelling, promote a healthy microcirculatory and venous system and support the immune system and reduces oxidative stress." Phase I capsules support non-invasive aesthetic procedures while Phase II powder sachets support the wound healing process and assist in recovery time after cosmetic surgical procedures. The Advanced Pre/Post Formula combines GliSODin with maritime pine bark extract, gotu kola seed, hyaluronic acid, lemon balm leaf and L-glutamine.
Such patients request procedures ranging from basic skin care protection to cosmetic surgical procedures.