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obligation in services, money, or goods owed by one party, the debtor, to another, the creditor. When contested, debts are collected by a civil suit upon which the judge renders a judgment, and an execution is levied on the debtor's property. In ancient nations debt was associated with slavery because the insolvent debtor and his household were in many cases turned over to the creditor to perform compulsory services. In early Rome the insolvent was given into custody of the creditor for 60 days prior to his sale as a slave, subject to such treatment as pleased the creditor. That arrangement was mitigated in 494 B.C. by the first of the uprisings of the Roman people; turbulence in Rome afterward was to a large extent occasioned by the desire to restrain creditors. In Greece the reforms of SolonSolon
, c.639–c.559 B.C., Athenian statesman, lawgiver, and reformer. He was also a poet, and some of his patriotic verse in the Ionic dialect is extant. At some time (perhaps c.600 B.C.) he led the Athenians in the recapture of Salamis from the Megarians.
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 had a similar origin. In ancient Israel, every 50th year—the year of jubilee—Jewish debtors were freed and their obligations were canceled. Sumerian and Babylonian kings also periodically proclaimed jubilee periods when debts over seven years old were forgiven. Imprisonment for debt, which once crowded prisons, was ended in theory in England and the United States by laws enacted in the 19th cent. The laws of bankruptcybankruptcy,
in law, settlement of the liabilities of a person or organization wholly or partially unable to meet financial obligations. The purposes are to distribute, through a court-appointed receiver, the bankrupt's assets equitably among creditors and, in most instances, to
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 are designed to apply the resources of debtors to their debts and thereafter to remove such legal obligations.


See D. Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years (2011).

References in periodicals archive ?
The additional cost of debt servicing will be more than the amount that the government will collect by slapping additional taxes on the people, including low-income groups.
Cost of Debt Underperformance: We expect the company to underperform on the cost of debt until at least the end of RIIO-ED1 price control period.
If this translated in a sustained increase in the overall cost of debt, our previous analysis shows that debt affordability and fiscal metrics would weaken or, in some cases, not improve as we currently expect," Moody's cautioned.
So, for example, in the United States of America the cost of debt in retail sectors is as follows: retail (automotive) 3,17%, retail (building supply) 3,67%, retail (distributors) 3,67%, retail (general) 3,17%, retail (grocery and food) 3,67%, retail (online) 4,17%, retail (special line) 3,67%, and total retail 3,67% (Cost of capital by sector (US)--NYU Stern School Business) ( (accessed 20/7/2015 10:AM).
There is a significant negative relation between conditional conservatism and the cost of debt of companies.
The revised cost of debt will further support the underlying cash flows of the business," said Sam Seddiqi, chief executive of NREC.
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