Objective: Long-coherence times, High-fidelity individual-ion control and entanglement-mediating coulomb interactions
make trapped-ion qubits a very attractive platform for quantum information processing (qip).
Physicists and chemists present 27 mini-reviews of their research into Coulomb fluids: from weak to strong couplings, ions at interfaces and in nanoconfinement, complex colloids, biological systems and macromolecular interactions, and disorder effects in Coulomb interactions
Figure 2 of  shows the three types of Coulomb interactions
between two electric charges.
On the other hand, amorphous polymers are materials rich in ionized impurities whose Coulomb interactions
must be included in the analysis of the mechanism of hopping conduction .
Strong Intermolecular Forces: Covalent and Coulomb Interactions
Efficient materials systems must span many length scales; from nm molecular dimensions, to the 10 nm length scale of Coulomb interactions
at 300 K in molecular systems, to the macroscopic dimensions of biological structures and of synthetic electronic devices.