Council of Chalcedon

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Chalcedon, Council of

Chalcedon, Council of, fourth ecumenical council, convened in 451 by Pulcheria and Marcian, empress and emperor of the East, to settle the scandal of the Robber Synod and to discuss Eutychianism (see Eutyches). It deposed the principals in the Robber Synod and destroyed the Eutychian party. Its great work, however, was its Definition regarding the nature and person of Jesus. Based upon the formulation given by Pope St. Leo I in his famous Tome to Flavian, it declared that, contrary to the view taken by Eutychianism (see Eutyches) and Monophysitism, the second Person of the Trinity has two distinct natures—one divine and one human. It was also proclaimed that these two natures exist inseparably in one person. This difference was a major factor in the Monophysite schism that divided the East for centuries. The council produced 28 disciplinary canons important for canon law in both the East and West. However, the Roman Catholic Church did not admit the 28th canon, which made the patriarch of Constantinople second only to the pope in Rome in precedence, until the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).
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However, a problem arose since the council of Chalcedon spoke of the ordination of deaconesses.
Under Pulcheria's influence, the new emperor, her husband, Marcian, called the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which defined the orthodox doctrine of the two natures of Christ.
Both Caucasian churches came to adopt a vernacular liturgy, but whereas the Georgian church remained in communion with the Orthodox church of Byzantium, the Armenian church refused to recognise the General Council of Chalcedon of 451 at which it had not been represented, and became independent under its own Catholicus in the early seventh century.
70), the Council of Nicaea (325), the Council of Chalcedon (451), the Rule of St.
In part II, the author deals with the Syrian hermits before the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.).
Accordingly, in 451, the Council of Chalcedon met to formulate a statement of faith that would satisfy the West as to orthodoxy at the same time that it would address "the intellectual depths to which the subtler Greek mind had carded its' speculations." What resulted was the Definition of Chalcedon, which states in part that in Jesus there were Definition of Chalcedon, which states in part that in Jesus there were "two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation."(53) This would seem to be a perfectly acceptable solution to the Christological question, one that would satisfy the West and pacify the East.
Likewise, the "Definition of the Council of Chalcedon" has played a significant role in contemporary ecumenical discussions involving Anglican, Older Catholic, Orthodox, and Roman Catholic Christians.
Although the Armenians refused to accept the Council of Chalcedon of 451, since none of their bishops were in attendance, they did not adopt the monophysite heresy that it condemned.
The Coptic Orthodox Church, along with others, disagreed over the nature of Jesus in the Council of Chalcedon in 451, creating a lasting schism.
When the council proceedings reached the West, two large dioceses, North Africa and Aquileia, broke away in schism, not in defense of Theodore, but convinced that the council had rejected the Council of Chalcedon (451).
The Council of Chalcedon, under the protection of the new, vigorous Emperor Marcian--who was portrayed as a second Constantine in his propaganda--set out to undo the damage.
As an example, Tilley cited the fifth-century Council of Chalcedon, which adopted the formula that Christ had "two natures," divine and human, in "one person." Those terms, he suggested, made sense in the context of ancient Greek philosophy, but aren't readily accessible today, so repeating them "runs the real risk of distorting the meaning of the faith."

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