Council of Chalcedon


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Chalcedon, Council of,

fourth ecumenical council, convened in 451 by Pulcheria and Marcian, empress and emperor of the East, to settle the scandal of the Robber Synod and to discuss Eutychianism (see EutychesEutyches
, c.378–c.452, archimandrite in Constantinople, sponsor of Eutychianism, the first phase of Monophysitism. He was the leader in Constantinople of the most violent opponents of Nestorianism, among whom was Dioscurus, successor to St. Cyril (d.
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). It deposed the principals in the Robber Synod and destroyed the Eutychian party. Its great work, however, was its Definition regarding the nature and person of Jesus. Based upon the formulation given by Pope St. Leo I in his famous Tome to Flavian, it declared that, contrary to the view taken by Eutychianism (see EutychesEutyches
, c.378–c.452, archimandrite in Constantinople, sponsor of Eutychianism, the first phase of Monophysitism. He was the leader in Constantinople of the most violent opponents of Nestorianism, among whom was Dioscurus, successor to St. Cyril (d.
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) and MonophysitismMonophysitism
[Gr.,=belief in a single nature], a heresy of the 5th and 6th cent., which grew out of a reaction against Nestorianism. It was anticipated by Apollinarianism and was continuous with the principles of Eutyches, whose doctrine had been rejected in 451 at Chalcedon
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, the second Person of the Trinity has two distinct natures—one divine and one human. It was also proclaimed that these two natures exist inseparably in one person. This difference was a major factor in the Monophysite schism that divided the East for centuries. The council produced 28 disciplinary canons important for canon law in both the East and West. However, the Roman Catholic Church did not admit the 28th canon, which made the patriarch of Constantinople second only to the pope in Rome in precedence, until the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).
References in periodicals archive ?
However, a problem arose since the council of Chalcedon spoke of the ordination of deaconesses.
Under Pulcheria's influence, the new emperor, her husband, Marcian, called the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which defined the orthodox doctrine of the two natures of Christ.
The Oriental Orthodox family includes churches that did not accept the political and theological constraints of some of the early ecumenical councils, above all the Council of Chalcedon, although differences are no longer as divisive as they once were.
Both Caucasian churches came to adopt a vernacular liturgy, but whereas the Georgian church remained in communion with the Orthodox church of Byzantium, the Armenian church refused to recognise the General Council of Chalcedon of 451 at which it had not been represented, and became independent under its own Catholicus in the early seventh century.
In part II, the author deals with the Syrian hermits before the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.
Accordingly, in 451, the Council of Chalcedon met to formulate a statement of faith that would satisfy the West as to orthodoxy at the same time that it would address "the intellectual depths to which the subtler Greek mind had carded its' speculations.
Although the Armenians refused to accept the Council of Chalcedon of 451, since none of their bishops were in attendance, they did not adopt the monophysite heresy that it condemned.
When the council proceedings reached the West, two large dioceses, North Africa and Aquileia, broke away in schism, not in defense of Theodore, but convinced that the council had rejected the Council of Chalcedon (451).
The Council of Chalcedon, under the protection of the new, vigorous Emperor Marcian--who was portrayed as a second Constantine in his propaganda--set out to undo the damage.
As an example, Tilley cited the fifth-century Council of Chalcedon, which adopted the formula that Christ had "two natures," divine and human, in "one person.
Loon (theology, Centre for Patristic Research, Utrecht) was troubled at the interpretation of Cyril's (370-444) christology put forth by both the (Chalcedonian) Eastern Orthodox and the (Miaphysite) Oriental Orthodox representatives as they have met over the past half century to try to repair the rift that opened between them after the Council of Chalcedon in 451.
In addition, Arians trace their ejection from mainstream Christianity to the Council of Constantine in 381; Assyrians (Nestorians) split off as a result of the Council of Ephesus fifty years later; then in 451 the Council of Chalcedon adopted positions on the person of Christ that were incompatible with the distinctive theologies of groups that became known as the Oriental Orthodox: the non-Chalcedonian Armenians, Copts, Ethiopians, Indian Orthodox, and Syrians (Jacobites).

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