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(Russian, glasnye), members of the city dumas and land assemblies (district and province) in pre-revolutionary Russia.
Councils were introduced into the cities in 1785 by the Charter of the Cities and into the provincial and district zemstvos (elected assemblies) by the Zemstvo Reform of 1864. Only owners of immovable property, entrepreneurs, and merchants took part in the election of councilmen. The working population was denied that right. The councils were abolished after the October Revolution of 1917.