Counterplan

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Counterplan

 

a form of manifestation of worker initiative and participation by the masses in the management of production; the counterplan arose in the USSR in the course of socialist competition during the fulfillment of the first five-year plan (1929-32). The counterplan idea was proposed at the Karl Marx Factory (Leningrad) in June 1930. Discussing the factory’s plan, the workers, considering the available reserves, suggested a counterproposal aimed at overfulfilling the basic targets of the plan. In 1930-31, the counterplan took the form of a shift counterplan, and later appeared as a technical production and financial counterplan. Reflecting the growth of activity of the shock workers, the counterplan spread widely to all sectors of the national economy of the USSR. Thus, in 1933 in metallurgy alone, over 2,300 brigades (34,000 workers) participated in working out a counterplan. Counterplans furthered the improvement of the organization of production and use of material, labor, and financial resources, thereby promoting a higher productiveness of labor and the fulfillment of the first five-year plan ahead of schedule. The proposal of counterplans in the form of socialist obligations for the fulfillment of monthly, quarterly, and annual plans ahead of schedule has been widespread throughout the USSR and other socialist countries in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

References in periodicals archive ?
These are, of course, the places often described in disadvantages, counterplans, and affirmative plans, student-veterans might even contribute to critical/kritikal debate rounds where ideas of Orientalism (Said 1978, 1993), critical geopolitics, and anti-Islamic beliefs are among the topics discussed, student-veterans, particularly those who have been deployed, have insight into the complex issues discussed in policy debate because of their experiences in the countries commonly mentioned in those debates.
Meany and Schuster's discussion on parliamentary debate, both American and British forms, ranges from the role of each speaking position to the use of critiques and counterplans as an opposition strategy.
It establishes specific practices that must be adhered to (such as full source citations) and identifies other practices that must be avoided (such as multiple counterplans).
He develops detailed explanations of basic debate theory, including value criteria for CEDA debate and counterplans for NDT debate, and illustrates them with examples from recent debate topics.