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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



one of the ways of training and raising the qualifications of workers for production and management, science, culture, education, public health, and public services. Courses prepare people primarily for occupations and fields of specialization at the lower levels, where long periods of training or, in some cases, completion of education are not required, for example, workers in common occupations. Courses are also organized for instruction in various skills such as stenography, typing, and sewing, for teaching foreign languages, and for preparing persons for enrollment in educational institutions. Courses for raising the qualifications of specialists in various sectors of the national economy have become popular.

Courses may be given regularly or only once. The length of study depends on the aims and content of the course, for example, courses training industrial workers generally last six months. Courses are organized at enterprises, establishments, institutions, schools, and institutes for the advanced training of specialists by ministries, governmental departments, and other agencies, which also supervise the courses. They are closely regulated by rules and laws. Those wishing to enroll must meet certain educational, age, and health requirements. As a rule, instruction is free, and students attending day courses either receive a stipend or are paid the equivalent of their most recent wages. Graduates of courses are usually guaranteed work and have the right to transfer to the occupations for which they have been trained. They become eligible for promotion and higher salaries, as indicated by a certificate or a notation in their work book.

In the USSR in 1971, 17.8 million industrial and office workers (at enterprises, institutions, and establishments) and about 1.6 million collective-farm workers (at the farms) either acquired a new specialization or improved their qualifications through the system of course training.

Workers in many other countries also receive occupational training and improve their qualifications by enrolling in courses.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
"Of course, I remember," she said frankly, and with a shade of sadness passing over her face.
"Of course you didn't, she said, patting my cheek with a kind little hand.
This scarcity of game, however, which already had been felt to a pinching degree, and which threatened them with famine among the sterile heights which lay before them, admonished them to change their course. It was determined, therefore, to make for a stream, which they were informed passed the neighboring mountains, to the south of west, on the grassy banks of which it was probable they would meet with buffalo.
One was Captain Stewart, of the British army, a gentleman of noble connections, who was amusing himself by a wandering tour in the Far West; in the course of which, he had lived in hunter's style; accompanying various bands of traders, trappers, and Indians; and manifesting that relish for the wilderness that belongs to men of game spirit.
This was a little joke of John's; he used to say that a regular course of "the Birtwick horseballs" would cure almost any vicious horse; these balls, he said, were made up of patience and gentleness, firmness and petting, one pound of each to be mixed up with half a pint of common sense, and given to the horse every day.
"But, of course, you--you'd want her, your sister's child," ventured Nancy, vaguely feeling that somehow she must prepare a welcome for this lonely little stranger.
Burdovsky and Colia I except, of course. They did not even come into my room."
Of course the only boy who replied to every question was Slightly, and no one could have been more hopeful of coming out first, but his answers were perfectly ridiculous, and he really came out last: a melancholy thing.
`Why, SHE, of course,' said the Dodo, pointing to Alice with one finger; and the whole party at once crowded round her, calling out in a confused way, `Prizes!
"Of course if you and Regina invite her the thing is settled.
"You will, of course, command it yourself?" said Julie, directing a sly, sarcastic glance toward the militia officer.
"Of course I will mention it when I write him," said Anne, a trifle distantly.