Court of Justice of the European Union

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Court of Justice of the European Union

Court of Justice of the European Union, judicial institution of the European Union (EU). Located in Luxembourg, it was founded in 1958 as the joint court for the three treaty organizations that were consolidated into the European Community (the predecessor of the EU) in 1967.

The institution now consists of two bodies. The Court of Justice is the direct descendant of the original joint court. It is now composed of 11 advocates general and one judge from each of the EU nations. All members of the court are appointed for renewable six-year terms by agreement among the EU nations. The court interprets EU treaties and legislation. Although it may attempt to reconcile differences between national and EU laws, ultimately its decisions overrule those of national courts; they have tended to expand the EU's domain. Increased litigation over the years led to the establishment of a lower court, the General Court (1988, formerly the Court of First Instance); a specialized civil service tribunal established in 2004 had its jurisdiction assumed by the General Court in 2016. Appeals to the Court of Justice are tightly restricted.

International law cases involving nations outside the EU are heard by the World Court in The Hague; the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, is recognized by the members of the Council of Europe and hears cases relating to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Personal Freedoms.

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References in periodicals archive ?
How visible is the Court of Justice? What levels of specific and diffuse support do mass publics extend to the Court of Justice?
In accordance with judgments of the European Court of Justice and with EC directives, the host country retains the right to regulate branches or the cross-border provision of services to the extent that doing so is necessary to protect the public interest.
In a major relief for India, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on Wednesday asked Pakistan to review its conviction and sentencing of Indian national Kulbhushan Jadhav, facing execution on charges of spying.
Javed Iqbal Maseeh urged the Pakistani government to take the issue at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to apprise the world of Indian aggression and her double standard.
India recently took the issue to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) seeking provisional stay to his execution.
The organisation then demanded from the Court of Justice the reversal of the General Court's decision, arguing that the General Court had incorrectly applied a regulation on community trademark by not acknowledging the market impact of the visual and phonetic similarities of "hellim" and "halloumi."
Actions for annulment may be brought before the Court of Justice by one EU institution against another or by a member state against the European Parliament or against certain Council acts.
He said the Pakistan government had earlier decided to take up the matter before the International Court of Justice but now the idea had been changed.
Summary: AMSTERDAM, June 01, 2010, SPA -- Australia has filed a complaint against Japan at the world court in The Hague to stop Southern Ocean scientific whaling, the International Court of Justice said on Tuesday.
In December 2007, the EU Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled that Spain was failing in its obligation to protect steppic birds in a number of - likely to be - Natura 2000 areas affected by this large-scale construction project.
THE EUROPEAN Commission is threatening Germany with legal action at the European Court of Justice because it claims labour protection laws, designed to soften the effect of liberalising the country's ground-handling services, go against EU legislation.
The Department of Justice is also responsible for administering the Nunavut Court of Justice.