of Feeding times bout eaten (min) Blue- and cowberry
(Vaccinium myrtillus, 1267 14 [+ or -] 1 V vitis-idaea) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) 688 9 [+ or -] 1 Grass/sedge (Poaceae/Carex spp.) 254 10 [+ or -] 1 Spruce (Picea abies) 50 6 [+ or -] 1 Heather (Calluna vulgaris) 38 11 [+ or -] 3 Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) 9 4 [+ or -] 1 Supplemental food (Avena sativa, Triticum 4 8 [+ or -] 7 aestivum, Zea mays) Meadowsweet (Spiraea tomentosa) 4 8 [+ or -] 5 Wild rosemary (Ledum palustre) 4 7 [+ or -] 6 Larch (Larix decidua) 3 5 [+ or -] 0 Oak (Quercus robur) 2 5 [+ or -] 3 Rasp- and blackberry (Rubus idaeus, R.
The average annual harvest of cowberry
leaves is 6 tons with 6 thousand tons of berries while the possible production stock is 24,000 tons for leaves and 72,000 tons for berries with the actual reserves in the territory of the Far East being 1,200,000 tons of leaves and 600,000 tons of berries (Nechaev 2006).
White flowers are produced by the cowberry
(Vaccinium vitis-idaea), wintergreens (Pyrolaceae), the May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), the European and American starflowers (Trientalis europaea and T.
Hazel (Corylus avellana) nuts, raspberry (Rubus idaeus), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry
(Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and hop (Humulus lupulus) were found.
myrtillus) requires 446-500[degrees]F (230-260[degrees]C) and the cowberry
blueberry Vaccinium myrtillus, crowberry Empetrum nigrum hermaphroditum and cowberry
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Dahle et al.
The is being carried out in the hope that it will encourage rare heathland plants, such as heather, bilberry and cowberry
In fact, the amount of faeces, on average, on the sample site over the year reached 147 [+ or -] 46 pellets in the pine forest with cowberry
, 85 [+ or -] 27 pellets in pine forest with green moss, 72 [+ or -] 11 in the pine forest with sphagnum, 60 [+ or -] 10 in spruce forest with herbs, 59 [+ or -] 9 in a mixed sphagnum forest, 49 [+ or -] 11 in a spruce forest with green moss, and 5 [+ or -] 1.5 in a mixed sphagnum forest (Fig.
For example, they use sphagnum moss (Sphagnum) to line the base of cradles, the bark of the alder (Alnus crispa and others) to tan leather, and the leaves and buds of bruniska (the red cowberry
, Vaccinium vitis-idaea var.
The forest floor is dominated by lichens, heather Calluna vulgaris and the berry-bearing species bilberry Vaccinium myrtillis, cowberry
In certain areas, birch and pine trees will be thinned out, as the scrub encroachment is endangering rare heathland plants such as bilberry and cowberry
Major forest types are Bilberry forests and Cowberry
forests (Tomter 1994).