cowpea

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cowpea,

 

black-eyed pea,

or

black-eyed bean,

annual legume (Vigna sinensis) of the pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
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 family. Introduced in the early 18th cent. from the Old World to the S United States, it has become a staple of Southern cooking and an important catch cropcatch crop,
any quick-growing crop sown between seasons of regular planting to make use of temporary idleness of the soil or to compensate for the failure of a main crop.
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, soil enhancer, and forage. Cowpea, sometimes called China bean, is grown commercially in India and China and as a high-protein subsistence crop in Africa. Cowpea is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.

Cowpea

 

(Vigna sinensis), an annual plant of the family Leguminosae. It resembles the kidney bean and the hyacinth bean. The stems, which are straight or prostrate, measure 20–200 cm long. The leaves are large, ternate, and long-petiolate. The inflorescences contain from two to eight yellowish green flowers. The pods, which measure 8–10 cm long, are cylindrical and linear; they contain four to ten seeds. Cowpea requires heat and moisture. The seeds sprout at a temperature of 12°-14°C; the sprouts are sensitive to spring frosts. The plant is cultivated in many countries, including Denmark, the Netherlands, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United States, and China. In the USSR it is grown in Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, the Northern Caucasus, and the southern Ukraine. Cowpea does not grow wild. There are many varieties under cultivation, predominantly on chernozem and clay soils—the soils on which they grow best.

Cowpea seeds are extremely tasty and have great nutritional value (containing 24–28 percent protein and 1.5–2 percent fat). They are used for food and forage. The unripened beans of varieties of the asparagus bean ( Vigna sesquipedalis) are eaten as a vegetable in fresh and canned forms. The foliage is used as pasture feed, hay, silage, and green manure; it is very nourishing and easily digestible and can be eaten by all types of livestock except horses. The yield per hectare (ha) is 126–300 centners of foliage, 45–60 centners of hay, and up to 14 centners of seeds (reaching 30 centners in moist subtropical areas). Cowpea that is grown for seeds is planted in wide rows spaced 50–70 cm apart. Plants that are cultivated for fodder and green manure are sown in rows spaced 30–35 cm apart or are planted broadcast. Cowpea is also planted in mixtures with corn, sorghum, sudan grass, and other crops. The rate of sowing for seeds is 35–40 kg/ha; for green fodder, 50 kg/ha; and for silage in mixtures with other crops, 25–30 kg/ha. The seeds are planted at a depth of 4–9 cm. Plantings of cowpea are damaged by pea and bean weevils, beetles, and pea moths. Countermeasures include chemical and agricultural-engineering methods.

A. P. MOVSISIANTS

cowpea

[′kau̇‚pē]
(botany)
Vigna sinensis. An annual legume in the order Rosales cultivated for its edible seeds. Also known as blackeye bean.
References in periodicals archive ?
Three replications of 10 seeds of the landraces EK1, TZ7, A17, IS13 and B23 of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.
The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is also an excellent source of iron and zinc [30].
According to the university, the project, originally called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (or PICS; www.
High night temperature above 20C particularly during flowering in cowpea induces male sterility (Ahmed and Hall 1993) which causes loss in grain yield and quality due to poor and shriveled pod setting (Ahmed and Hall 1993; Hayat et al.
com) offers all four summer cover crops, along with a cowpea inoculant to assure nitrogen fixation in the cowpea and hemp legumes.
Although this study is focused on preservation of dry seeds, many other parts of the cowpea crop are useful since they are rich in nutrients and fiber.
These peas, variously called crowders, field peas, cowpeas, or Southern peas, bear long, slender pods held above the shrubby foliage.
In Thailand, a major problem for yardlong bean and cowpea production is the severe infestation and damage by various insect pests in the field (Benchasri and Bairaman, 2010).
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) also called Crowder pea, black-eyed pea or southern pea is a protein rich legume with very high potential to improve the standard of living of peasant farmers in Africa, where the cost of animal protein is high -(Babaleye, 1993).
The peptide triggers production of ethylene and a series of other defense-related phytohormones in cowpeas.
The following legume seeds were analyzed: lentils (Lens culinaris L), green and yellow peas (Pisum sativum L), white and red cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan L Mills), and black, white, red and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L).