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Craiova(kräyŏ`vä), city (1990 pop. 317,368), SW Romania, in Walachia, on the Jiu River, a tributary of the Danube. It is the administrative and industrial center of the agricultural and mineral-rich Oltenia region and is an important market for grain. Locomotives, mining equipment, and processed food are produced. Built on the site of a Roman settlement, Craiova became the capital of Oltenia in 1492. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1790 and burnt by the Turks in 1802. An agreement signed in the city in 1940 returned S Dobruja to Bulgaria. Craiova has a university (est. 1966) and other institutions of higher learning, a state philharmonic orchestra, and several museums containing prehistoric and Roman relics. The 17th-century St. Demetrius church (restored 18th cent.) and the 19th-century palace are also of interest.
a city in southwestern Rumania, in the foothills of the Transylvanian Alps, in the valley of the Jiu River. The administrative center of Dolj District, Oltenia Province. Population, 175,500 (1970).
Craiova has grown into an important transportation hub and industrial center since the establishment of people's power. Its industry is represented by machine building (agricultural machinery and electric locomotives) and the production of electrical engineering and petroleum equipment. I§alnija, to the northwest of Craiova, is the site of a chemistry and power complex connected by pipelines with petroleum enterprises. Craiova is the site of food, textile, and furniture enterprises, agricultural and teachers' institutes, and the People's School of Art. The name Craiova was first mentioned in the 15th century.