Creatine


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creatine

[′krē·ə‚tēn]
(biochemistry)
C4H9O2N3α-Methylguanidine-acetic acid; a compound present in vertebrate muscle tissue, principally as phosphocreatine.

Creatine

 

N-methylguanidoacetic acid. Molecular weight, 131.14; melting point, 315°C (with dissociation):

Creatine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The interaction of mineral acids and creatine produces the lactam creatinine. This reaction is the basis of one of the methods used to determine creatine content. Creatine dissociates into urea and methylglycine in an alkaline medium.

Creatine was discovered in 1835 by the French scientist M. Chevreul in extracts from skeletal muscles. It is found in the muscle tissue of all vertebrates (approximately 0.5 percent of the muscle weight) in the form of the unstable creatinephosphoric acid, which takes part in supplying the energy required for muscle contraction. Smaller quantities are present in nerve tissue, blood, liver, and kidneys. Creatine biosynthesis in an organism is achieved in the kidneys from the amino acids glycine and arginine, forming glycocyamine. The glycocyamine undergoes subsequent methylation in the liver in the presence of the amino acid methionine to yield creatine.

N. P. MESHKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of red cell creatine level and reticulocyte count in appraising the severity of hemolytic processes.
There are evidences in support of short-time (5 - 7 days) oral creatine supplementation effectiveness on the ability to improve performance of functional living tasks, mean power output, and functional capacity in fatigue threshold (23-25).
Creatine use has also been associated with an increased risk of compartment syndrome, a condition where pressure builds in a muscle compartment and prevents blood flow.
Fifty (50) Ischaemic stroke patients were studied for Serum Enzymes, that is Creatine Kinase, Creatine Kinase-MB and Aspartate Transaminase.
Comparison of interleukin 18 (IL-18) in serum revealed a trend of decreasing IL-18 concentrations with an increase of creatine monohydrate in diet but this difference in IL-18 concentration between the treatments was statistically non significant (P = 0.
In studies, creatine has been found to help boost cellular energy and to significantly lower accumulation of lipofuscin in the brains of aging mice.
Devastated friend Chris also claims his pal was being bullied online in private messages by an internet gang, which could have driven him to bulk up with creatine.
Pigs received either 20 grams of creatine or no treatment from day 110 of pregnancy until they gave birth.
The team, led by Ravinder Reddy, PhD, professor of Radiology and director of the Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging at Penn Medicine, found that imaging creatine through CEST MRI provides higher resolution compared to standard magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a commonly used technique for measuring creatine.
There is conflicting information about effect of creatine and ginseng supplementation on athletic performance.
While creatine supplementation (CS) has been reported to increase body weight and improve performance during high intensity, short duration exercise, it has not been determined whether CS strategies improve performance in open water competition.
The researchers suggested that the eccentric damage induced by their protocol may have been too severe for the creatine repair mechanisms to overcome.