Creatine


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creatine

[′krē·ə‚tēn]
(biochemistry)
C4H9O2N3α-Methylguanidine-acetic acid; a compound present in vertebrate muscle tissue, principally as phosphocreatine.

Creatine

 

N-methylguanidoacetic acid. Molecular weight, 131.14; melting point, 315°C (with dissociation):

Creatine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The interaction of mineral acids and creatine produces the lactam creatinine. This reaction is the basis of one of the methods used to determine creatine content. Creatine dissociates into urea and methylglycine in an alkaline medium.

Creatine was discovered in 1835 by the French scientist M. Chevreul in extracts from skeletal muscles. It is found in the muscle tissue of all vertebrates (approximately 0.5 percent of the muscle weight) in the form of the unstable creatinephosphoric acid, which takes part in supplying the energy required for muscle contraction. Smaller quantities are present in nerve tissue, blood, liver, and kidneys. Creatine biosynthesis in an organism is achieved in the kidneys from the amino acids glycine and arginine, forming glycocyamine. The glycocyamine undergoes subsequent methylation in the liver in the presence of the amino acid methionine to yield creatine.

N. P. MESHKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate and glucose on somatic characteristics, energy, status, and posthatch performance of broiler embryos and hatchlings.
Inclusion criteria included the following: not using any central nervous system stimulants; no personal history of cardiovascular, kidney, or liver disease; no injuries or pain in the shoulders or elbows; and not taking any supplements that contained creatine in the last 60 days.
Indeed, combining specific therapy with creatine supplementation the CR group increased SLM significantly and approached the base level.
T2 weighted MRI of a patient with Cerebral Creatine Deficiency showing Normal Findings (C).
However, it is clear that there were better results in both EMG activity and torque production when creatine and caffeine were combined.
Comparison of red cell creatine level and reticulocyte count in appraising the severity of hemolytic processes.
Liquid residual of tuna fish (Euthynnus affinis) collected for seven days during iced storage at 4[degrees]C had shown presence of creatine and phenylalanine compounds derived from biofluids and microbial products, respectively, through LC-MS/MS analysis.
Often high school creatine users either do not know how much creatine they are taking or are intentionally taking more than the dose recommended on packaging provided by manufacturers.
Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation.
(1.) Product review: muscle enhancers (creatine and branched-chain amino acids) [Web page].
Recently, creatine has been found to significantly lower the accumulation of a recognized marker of aging called lipofuscin in the brains of aging mice.