Creatine

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creatine

[′krē·ə‚tēn]
(biochemistry)
C4H9O2N3α-Methylguanidine-acetic acid; a compound present in vertebrate muscle tissue, principally as phosphocreatine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Creatine

 

N-methylguanidoacetic acid. Molecular weight, 131.14; melting point, 315°C (with dissociation):

Creatine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The interaction of mineral acids and creatine produces the lactam creatinine. This reaction is the basis of one of the methods used to determine creatine content. Creatine dissociates into urea and methylglycine in an alkaline medium.

Creatine was discovered in 1835 by the French scientist M. Chevreul in extracts from skeletal muscles. It is found in the muscle tissue of all vertebrates (approximately 0.5 percent of the muscle weight) in the form of the unstable creatinephosphoric acid, which takes part in supplying the energy required for muscle contraction. Smaller quantities are present in nerve tissue, blood, liver, and kidneys. Creatine biosynthesis in an organism is achieved in the kidneys from the amino acids glycine and arginine, forming glycocyamine. The glycocyamine undergoes subsequent methylation in the liver in the presence of the amino acid methionine to yield creatine.

N. P. MESHKOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In terms of administration protocols, a loading phase of 20 g/day for 5 days followed by a maintenance phase of 2 or 3 g/day is common for creatine monohydrate (5, 16).
We have recently reported the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on complete blood count and on selected parameters of serum biochemical profile in albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult and we had observed that creatine supplementation following hypoxic ischemic insult helps in maintaining the normal blood chemistry when compared with the creatine untreated mice indicating that creatine reaches the target sites in intact form when transported via blood following dietary supplementation for variable durations (Iqbal et al.
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Long-term effects of creatine monohydrate on strength and power.
* Proteins high in BCAAs and glutamine (especially whey, caseinate and milk protein isolates); and creatine monohydrate (for high power, brief recovery sports).
A recent report on creatine looked at 6-8 g of creatine monohydrate taken daily.
Oral creatine supplementation followed the manufacturer's recommended dose of ~5 g of creatine monohydrate dissolved in 237 mL (8 fluid ounces) of Gatorade[R] (5).
Creatine monohydrate is certainly one of the hottest ergogenic (sports-enhancing) supplements of the decade.
Many athletes claim enhanced performance through use of the amino acid derivative creatine monohydrate, commonly known as creatine.
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Garvin says he's been taking creatine since he was 15 years old, starting with a creatine monohydrate and later switching to effervescent creatine because "it's more bioavailable and less harsh." Creatine, he says, is a great way to build explosive power during exercise or activity because it increases cellular energy.