The author extends his most grateful appreciation to Paul Valery University, the Laboratoire DIPRALANG EA 739, and all of the faculty, staff, and students for organizing and conducting the superb Conference on the Creoles
and Cajuns of Louisiana, where an early version of this Article was presented.
Burkholder shows that the Spanish Crown initially favoured descendants of conquistadors and first settlers in making political appointments; by the mid-seventeenth century, many offices could be purchased and even willed to the next occupant, which proved a boon for creoles
. Although the Crown later tried to reclaim control of the Americas by appointing fewer native sons and more peninsulars to high office, creoles
had few complaints before c.1750.
The importance of language to every aspect of social experiences and the effect of media practices in changing attitudes in the use of Creole
versus Standard English further amplifies the need for clear Language planning in Anglophone Caribbean societies.
Although the focus is on Russian groups and individuals, he does pay attention to natives and creoles
. Like Bolkhovitinov, Vinkovetsky stresses the differences between Siberia and Russian America and notes that the RAC was an entirely new departure for the Russian government.
Historical romance offers fascinating introduction to 1846 New Orleans, its passionate Creole
people, and a beguiling Creole
belle named Desiree Bordeaux.
Sybil Kein is a prolific poet, dramatist, musician and scholar of Louisiana Creole
"Who is white?" Jolivette asks in the first chapter of his recent Louisiana Creoles
, posing a controversial question that concerns both racial and ethnic identity.
We can then divide the Caribbean area in two main regions with respect to the use of Creoles
: Spanish-speaking (S) versus non-Spanish-speaking (nS).
The Emergence of Creole
Syllable Structure: A Cross-Linguistic Study
During this period, white Creoles
sought to preserve this triracial system, but eventually the difficulty of retaining their ethnocultural and racial identification as white Creoles
was rendered incompatible with the AngloAmerican binary standard of whiteness as biological purity.