creole language

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creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Bref, la meilleure des << creolisations >>
A Nigerian identity that is self-aware ot its creolisation, rather than maintaining the illusion of a "multi-ethnic" patchwork, would not only be an exciting national project, but truer to the emerging state of affairs.
This article distinctly uses the hybridity theory as a creolisation theory because it accommodates the concerns of people born in Europe or the West to purely African parents or one in which the parents are of different races.
lt;< Alimentation et vivre-ensemble : le cas de la creolisation >> Anthropologie et societes, vol.
The essays not only address the ideas of alterity and otherness, but also pay due attention to Glissant's views on the 'Other America', along with the ideas of confluence and creolisation.
Patrice Brasseur, Francais d'Amerique : variation, creolisation, normalisation.
La creolizacion podria igual haber tenido lugar en otra parte como en el continente americano: "La creolisation antillaise--de par le monde il en est d'autres, aux modalites autresest--par consequent une precipitation anthropologique illimitee, contrastant ainsi avec le caractere tres limite de l'espace geographique dans lequel elle se meut" (52) (Chamoiseau, Confiant, 65).
ANTHROPOLOGY 235 (1991); Ulf Hannerz, The World in Creolisation, 5 AFR.
142) understanding of creolisation is useful in this regard too.