creole language

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creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Pre-1800 creolization was unlikely to have been as clear-cut as he suggests, with varying degrees of integration among Malay world Arabs highly likely.
With chapter 3, "Creolization and Technopoetics," Chude-Sokei shifts his focus to the techno-organic blending of humanity and its machines in the postmodern moment of cyberpunk, best represented by Gibson's monumental Neuromancer (1984), and cyborg theory, as in Haraway's "A Cyborg Manifesto" (1985).
Her research focuses on literary articulations of creolization that confound and work to dismantle the psychological remnants of colonialism.
He likens this cultural process to what linguists refer to as a koine (a language formed through the consolidation of related languages) rather than to creolization (a syncretic process that brings together disparate elements to make something new).
Unfortunately, the current state of descriptive work on all the languages involved does not allow us to be more confident as to how much of present-day EQ morphology is really due to creolization possibly with a Jivaroan, or probably rather with a Barbacoan, substrate.
Equally, even if, as Corriente assumes, initial contact conditions were optimal for creolization, there is no guarantee that early creolization effects would not have been displaced by standard dialect features in subsequent generations.
Mestizaje or creolization, up to a point, is a key point in their arguments and is addressed below.
By working, in part, to both merge and overturn a historical narrative of "creolization" that prioritized jus sanguinis (the right of blood) over jus soli (territorial rights), the Jamaican rebels invite a more careful consideration of the work of intercultural performance and creolization to inaugurate political change (Gerbi 182).
Cross-cultural ties and creolization are the chief concerns of Linda Rupert's 2012 Creolization and Contraband: Curacao in the Early Modern Atlantic World.