creole language

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creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Her research focuses on literary articulations of creolization that confound and work to dismantle the psychological remnants of colonialism.
Where the national imaginary is idealized in terms of creolization and creole (meaning Afro-Creole) culture, IndoCaribbeans are, by definition, excluded from participating in national culture.
169-186 in Pidginization and Creolization of Language, edited by D.
Among all contact outcomes, creolization is a strong concept.
This also can help us understand the second point, the processes of creolization or mestizaje.
Later, postcolonial Caribbean scholars, such as Edouard Glissant and Antonio Benitez-Rojo insisted on a broader, yet unintentionally limiting definition of creolization as an infinite and ceaseless process that does away with the notion of "fixed being" as a concept imposed by the West.
In Creolization and Contraband, Rupert uses innocuous language to describe a deadly history.
Language and Creolization are the subject of some of Glissant's most compelling essays and theoretical works.
2009 "Language Acquisition in Creolization and, Thus, Language Change: Some Cartesian Uniformitarian Boundary Conditions".
Africa/Africanness has become both a point of reference and a template for a world-totality based on global creolization.
4) The migration lent itself to a great deal of creolization as more cultures came into contact with each other.
Novel or modified approaches to classic political-anthropological themes such as the sources and trajectories of patrimonial authority, landlord--stranger reciprocities, and creolization figure prominently in several of the essays.