Cresols


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Related to Cresols: P-Cresol, metacresol

Cresols

 

(methylhydroxybenzenes, methylphenols), CH3C6H4OH, liquids with a characteristic unpleasant odor. There are three known isomers: meta-, ortho-, and para-cresol (see Table 1).

Cresols have limited solubility in water. They are easily soluble in organic solvents. Cresols are weak acids and form salts called cresolates when dissolved in bases.

In industry, cresols are obtained from coal tar, resin, and pitch and by synthesis from toluene. The isolation of o-cresols from a mixture of the isomers is achieved by fractional distillation. Chemical methods are used to isolate m-cresol and p-cresol.

Cresols are used in making dyes, medicines, explosives, fragrances, flotation agents, and antitoxidants.

References in periodicals archive ?
Degradation of high concentrations of cresols by Pseudomonas sp.
In the current study, a novel strain of Pseudomonas has been isolated form petroleum contaminated site, which has been found quite suitable for cresol degradation.
The solution of cresols in potassium soap is known as lisole and is used in medicine as it reveals strong disinfecting activity.
Phenol, cresols, formaldehyde and other components of resin binders and acids and alkalines used as catalysts, which would be present in many waste foundry sands (including green sand), would probably result in the waste being treated as special waste.
However, these oxidative methods are relatively expensive [4] and may lead to the formation of the toxic byproducts from phenol, dimethylphenols and cresols. In the case of dimethylphenols the complete detoxification was not achieved [95].
Analysis of structure/functional property relationships for novolak resins containing cresols has only been recently reported (13- 15).
The two lists also include many of the organic compounds typically found in waste oil, organic binders, sea coal and coke, such as acetone, benzene, 2,4-dimethylphenol, ethylbenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, naphthalene, 2methylnapthalene, phenol, dimethyl phthalate, phenanthrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, cresols, and xylenes.
Semi-coke solid wastes contain several organic and inorganic compounds (PAHs, oil products, sulfuric compounds), while liquid wastes (leachate) from the depository area are characterized by high concentration of phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols.
The novolacs were prepared in the usual manner by condensation of halogenophenols or cresols with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst (6).
The fact that this value was higher than the values for p-cresol, 5-methylresorcinol, resorcinol and o-cresol indicates that phenol was more readily oxidized by the studied activated sludge than cresols or resorcinols.
The remaining categories are the coal tar distillates (cresol), alcohols and oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide).