Criminal Legislation

Criminal Legislation


the totality of legal norms that establish the principles and limits of criminal responsibility, define the actions recognized as crimes, and specify types and measures of punishment. In the USSR criminal legislation is designed to protect the Soviet social and state structure, socialist property, the rights of citizens, and all socialist law and order from criminal infringement. Soviet criminal legislation includes all-Union and republic criminal laws. The most important of the all-Union laws are the Basic Principles of Criminal Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics, the Law on Criminal Responsibility for Crimes Against the State, and the Law on Criminal Responsibility for Military Crimes, all of which were adopted on Dec. 25,1958.

The Basic Principles of Criminal Legislation establish general principles and the most important provisions of the general part of Soviet criminal law: the tasks of criminal legislation, the grounds for and limits of criminal responsibility, the formal definition of crime, the forms of guilt, the concept of justifiable defense, preparation for a crime, attempt, and complicity, as well as the purposes and types of punishment and the principles and procedure for the imposition of punishment. Observance of these principles and provisions is obligatory in the adoption and application of all all-Union and republic criminal laws.

Republic criminal legislation is based on the Basic Principles of Criminal Legislation and on other all-Union criminal legislation. In each Union republic, the criminal codes adopted include all-Union or republic laws that clarify and supplement the codes, for example, Articles 93–1 and 224–1 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR.

In bourgeois states, criminal legislation is designed to protect the principles of capitalism and, primarily, of private property, the exploitation of man by man, and bourgeois law and order. Criminal codes are in effect in the majority of such states, for instance, the federal and state codes in the USA and the Code of 1810 in France. Criminal legislation in Great Britain is not codified; it consists of legislative acts on separate types of crimes, and the general part of criminal law is regulated on the basis of judicial precedents, many of which date from the age of feudalism.

References in periodicals archive ?
The events aimed at enhancing defence lawyers capacities to interpret and implement the evolving criminal legislation from both a substantial and procedural perspective.
Numerous nations throughout Europe have hate crimes legislation, something that has come very slowly and piecemeal to the United States (given our federal system where criminal legislation is largely a matter of state law).
Such norms are present both in the criminal legislation, and also in the commercial one.
Since the aim of the draft Criminal Code is humanization of criminal legislation, the Article 430 excludes some parts.
For example, the traditional judicial definition of criminal legislation --a law that contains "prohibitions backed by penalties," directed at "some evil or injurious or undesirable effect" and intended to achieve a legitimate "criminal" purpose (which includes, in Justice Rand's oft-cited phrasing, "public peace, order, security, health, morality") (Margarine Reference 1949: 50)--is potentially limitless (Manning 2002; Assisted Human Reproduction Reference 2010: paras 43, 240).
Pavel Krasheninnikov, a senior lawmaker who heads the Duma's criminal legislation committee, said the chamber was set to pass the amnesty bill by the end of the year.
17) The original version of the Act was a sweeping piece of criminal legislation that combined outright prohibitions, regulatory controls and diverse administrative mechanisms to govern a broad range of clinical, commercial and research activities related to assisted human reproduction.
SCJC's areas of interest include criminal trial practice and procedure, institutional examination of the police and correctional systems, social science study of the origins of criminal behavior and methods of punishment, and criminal legislation and enforcement in areas ranging from drug crimes to federal white collar crimes.
A local court in the northern district of Arkhangelsk near the penal colony to which Khodorkovsky and Platon Lebedev have been assigned through 2016 ruled that a recent change in criminal legislation permitted an early release.
He also repeated the desire for Governments to put in place criminal legislation to protect against deliberately under-performing for personal gain and noted that progress had been made in this area in Australia.
While there is a significant amount of criminal legislation in this area already, there is always scope for change and improvement.
The pardoning body consists of experts in the fields of criminal legislation, forensics and judicial psychiatry.