Cristae


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Cristae

 

(1) In anatomy, cristae are bony projections in vertebrate animals and man that serve to attach muscle tendons to the bones.

(2) In cytology, cristae are folds that protrude into the cavities of mitochondria and partially partition them. Cristae substantially increase the inner surface of the mitochondria. They are probably formed from processes of the inner membrane. In spherical mitochondria the cristae are oriented radially; in elongated ones they are most often perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The thickness of the cristae is about 160 angstroms. A direct relationship is thought to exist between the number of cristae and the activity of oxidative processes in the mitochondria. The number of cristae in different cells varies. For example, the mitochondria of liver cells contain few cristae, and heart muscle cells have many cristae. The mitochondria of many tissues have few cristae in the early stages of embryogeny, but with an increase in energy metabolism their number increases. The number of cristae also changes under the influence of various factors (shifts in osmotic pressure and temperature, narcotics).

M. E. ASPIZ

References in periodicals archive ?
In undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs), mitochondria are characterized as having a globular shape, with few defined cristae and limited oxidative capacity [21].
Reichert, "Cristae formation--linking ultrastructure and function of mitochondria," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, vol.
Previously, we have demonstrated that ischemia mainly affects the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where intracristal space was found enlarged resulting in ballooned cristae as well as enlarged peripheral space followed by detachment of outer and inner membranes [15].
Mitochondria display normal morphology--shape is from round to elongate depending on the section, cristae are arranged in parallel rows at regular intervals, and the matrix is evenly dense.
Earlier research reports described damaged or immature cristae in several animal species with compromised ATP synthase, but until now, no explanation or evidence existed to link this process to stem cell development.
Anterior margin of notogaster has two pairs of protuberances; notogastral cristae and humeral process.
"The cristae had been severely damaged and decreased in quantity in these patients," Francisco J.
In parasitized larvae, the mitochondria increase in quantity in both midgut regions, the majority of them presenting few cristae and lower electron dense matrix (Figures 1f-k) than in non-parasitized larvae.
[39,40] This is probably the result of a combination of age-related changes in the hair cells at the center of the cristae, [34] a relatively selective loss of large-diameter primary vestibular afferents, and neuronal loss in the superior vestibular nuclei.
Because of the folds of the cristae, no part of the matrix is far from the inner membrane (Caprette).