Based on 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences, the Genus Borrelia belongs to the Order Spirochaetales, family Spirochetaceae along with other genera, including Spirochaeta, Cristispira
, Treponema and Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina).
All identified spirochete clones fell into 2 families: the Spirochaetaceae with 2 genera, Cristispira and Spirochaeta, and the Brachyspiraceae, with the genus Brachyspira.
Later they were characterized by morphological features and described as the spirochete bacteria Cristispira (Noguchi 1921).
The phylogenetic positioning of the genus Cristispira (Paster et al.
Cristispira sp.-like spirochetes were micro scopically identified in early 1921 (Noguchi 1921) in 3 of 10 investigated bivalve species from North America (including oysters, Venus and Modiolus spp.).
The fine structure of Cristispira from the lamellibranch Cryptomya californica Conrad.
Large symbiotic spirochetes: Clevelandina, Cristispira, Diplocalyx, Hollandina and Pillotina.
Cristispira in North America shellfish: a note on a spirillum found in oysters.
Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira. Appl.