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a nation in Yugoslavia, numbering 4.5 million in 1971 (census). The majority of Croats (more than 3.5 million) live in Croatia and the rest in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Serbia, and the other Yugoslav republics. Outside of Yugoslavia, there are Croats living in Austria and Hungary, in the Americas (mainly in the USA), and in Australia. The Croats speak all three dialects of Serbo-Croatian. The overwhelming majority of believers are Roman Catholics, and the remainder are Orthodox, Protestants, or Muslims.

In the sixth and seventh centuries Slavic tribes, the ancestors of the Croats, lived on the northern coast of Dalmatia, in southern Istria, in northern Bosnia, and in the Sava-Drava interfluve. Among the oldest of these Slavic tribes were the Kačicć, the Šubići, and the Svačići. A Croatian state arose in the ninth century, but it was weakened by feudal strife in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. Subsequently, different parts of the Croatian lands came under the economic, political, and cultural influence of diverse states and peoples, notably the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and the Hapsburg Monarchy. Although the lack of national unity left its mark on the culture of the Croats, they nevertheless managed to preserve and develop their indigenous culture, which shares many traits with the culture of the other South Slavic peoples of Yugoslavia. In 1918 the Croats and other South Slavic peoples united to form a single state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929.

In the past the Croats were divided into ethnographic groups, their names often derived from their place of habitation—for example, Zagorci (people living beyond the mountains), Medjumurci, Prigorci (people living in the foothills), and Ličane. The inhabitants of the former Military Frontier, bordering on the Ottoman Empire, were called Graničari (border people). They included refugees from Serbia and Bosnia and from various parts of Croatia. Such a division into ethnographic groups is meaningless today. Within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the Croats are a homogeneous nation building a socialist economy and a national culture. (For the history, economy, and culture of the Croats, see and YUGOSLAVIA.)


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Mr Plenkovic said Praljak's action reflects the "deep moral injustice" done to six Bosnian Croats whose guilty verdicts were upheld by the UN's war crimes court in the Hague.
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was handing down its final judgment in an appeal by six Bosnian Croat political and military leaders.
The unprecedented scenes came just after the judges also upheld a 25-year prison term against Jadranko Prlic, the former prime minister of a breakaway Bosnian Croat statelet, and a 20-year term for its former defence minister Bruno Stojic.
Croatia filed its initial case with the ICJ - the top UN court - in 1999, accusing Serbs, led by President Slobodan Milosevic, of targeting ethnic Croats during the conflict.
Izetbegovic, a Bosniak, assumed the chairmanship from Zeljko Komsic who is a Croat and held the office over the past eight months.
Spurs boss Harry Redknapp has warned Chelsea that Modric is not for sale at any price, not unless they increase their offer by pounds 5m, and has branded the mercurial Croat irreplaceable - easy for him to say but not so easy for Roy Hodgson.
Working in the vineyards with Croats and Serbs, enemies during the war, has not been a problem for Lizde.
aYugoslavism was a national ideology initially based on the premise that Croats and Serbs were ethnically one nation.
But there are no clear territorial divide in the federation -- this area Muslim, that area Croat.
Daphne Winland has chosen an original angle to study another key phase of Croat identity formation--exile communities and post-Yugoslav Croatia.
of Melbourne, Australia) presents an ethnographic study of relations between Croat immigrants and Maoris in the gumfields of northern colonial New Zealand He first explores processes of identity formation within the context of the interplay of power relations in colonial New Zealand and then examines the role of collective and individual memory in producing identity among the Maori and the Croats and their descendents.
Croat captain Niko Kovaa headed home in 13 minutes from Darijo Srna's corner.