Croatian Peasant Party


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Croatian Peasant Party

 

(CPP; Hrvatska Pučka Seljačka Stranka), founded in 1904 by the brothers A. Radić and S. Radić. In 1905 the party adopted a program calling for political freedom, the enfranchisement of all independent farmers, and the abolition of the class privileges of the aristocracy. In the early 1900’s the CPP leaders developed the ideas of a unified peasant class, a peasant democracy, and a classless peasant state. They called for broad autonomy for Croatia in financial and economic matters, the unification of the Croatian lands, and the transformation of the Hapsburg Empire into a federation. The party advocated Croatian-Serbian cooperation but only on the condition that the national movement remain loyal to the unity of the empire and to the Hapsburg dynasty.

During World War I the CPP abandoned its Austro-Slavism and set as its goal Croatian autonomy and equality within a united South Slavic (Yugoslav) state. After the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in December 1918 (Yugoslavia from 1929), the CPP opposed the centralizing policy of the Serbian bourgeoisie, which aspired to create a Greater Serbia. At a congress held in Zagreb in February 1919 the party called for the creation of a republic (it was known as the Croatian Republican Peasant Party from 1919 to 1925) and demanded the right to self-determination and agrarian reforms. The party won 50 seats in the elections to the Constituent Skupština (assembly) in November 1920 and 70 seats in the elections to the National Skupština in 1923, becoming the second largest party in the country, after the Serbian Radicals. When the party joined the Peasant International in 1924, the government took repressive measures, banning the party and arresting S. Radić. Displaying remarkable inconsistency, the party leaders entered into negotiations with the government and dropped their republican slogans. In July 1925 the CPP joined the Serbian Radicals in a coalition government, but it withdrew the next year in protest against the Greater Serbia policy of the government majority. At the end of 1927 the CPP and the Independent Democratic Party (founded 1924) formed a political bloc called the Peasant-Democratic Coalition.

After the establishment of a monarchist military dictatorship in Yugoslavia on Jan. 6, 1929, all political parties, including the CPP, were banned. Between 1929 and 1934 the CPP, now headed by V. Maček, was inactive. In 1935–36 it became the chief party of the Croatian bourgeoisie. In 1937, as a member of the Peasant-Democratic Coalition, the CPP participated in the formation of a coalition of bourgeois opposition parties popularly known as the Bloc of National Accord, which demanded the democratization of society.

In its efforts to secure autonomy for Croatia, the CPP sought the support of the Italian fascist regime. On Aug. 26, 1939, the party and the government of D. Cvetković concluded an agreement granting autonomy to Croatia. Maček became deputy prime minister in the Yugoslav government formed at that time. The party leadership approved the protocol signed by the Cvetković government on Mar. 25, 1941, marking Yugoslavia’s accession to the Berlin Pact. After the occupation of Yugoslavia by fascist troops in April 1941, the CPP virtually ceased to exist. Its reactionary wing joined the Ustaše (Ustashi), and its leftist elements fought in the National Liberation War in Yugoslavia (1941–45).

REFERENCE

Čulinović, F. Jugoslavia izmedu dva rata, vols. 1–2. Zagreb, 1961.

V. I. FREIDZON (to 1914) and V. K. VOLKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Before immigrating to Canada in 1926 he was a member of the Croatian Sokol movement and a strong supporter of the Croatian Peasant Party. He was employed as a tailor, miner and also worked in other jobs in British Columbia.
The first four places on the coalition slate went to candidates from the HDZ, the fifth place went to the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), the Croatian Party of Rights Ante Starcevic (HSP AS) got the sixth and the eight place, the 11th place went to the Pensioners' Bloc (BUZ), while the HDZ would fill the rest of the places on the coalition slate.
Political parties (represented in Parliament): Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP), Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats (HNS), Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS), Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU), Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja (HDSSB), Party of Democratic Action of Croatia (SDAH).
Typically, the competition between the Croatian Peasant Party, the Radicals, and the Democratic Party in the 1920s was as much about political power as it was about nationalism.
Pankretic, a member of the Conservative Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), which along with the Social Liberal Party (HSLS) forms a coalition with the ruling Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), has yet to convince his partners in the government to endorse this proposal.
After Yugoslavia was formed and, with the Pasich ministry, had passed under Serbian domination, the nationalist feeling of the Croats in Croatia bodied forth in the Croatian Peasant Party, led first by Stephen Radich and then Vladimir Machek.
Though a devoted and trusted lieutenant of the Croatian Peasant Party leader, Machek, Subasich has always been suspect among these extreme Croatian nationalists because he has believed in Yugoslavia and has had his contacts in Belgrade.
In addition, he pointed out that the HDZ's programme also derived from the ideology of the centrist Croatian Peasant Party, the largest Croat party during the interwar period, and from the Second World War communist Partisan tradition.
In supporting Pavelic, Germany had passed over the far more popular Vladko Macek, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party. Macek was imprisoned for most of the war, but strong opposition to Pavelic's regime continued by two other groups that were themselves opponents in a separate civil war in World War II Yugoslavia.
Even among nationalist Croatians support for the Ustasa regime decreased significantly because of the chaotic conditions that accompanied the Ustasa state's short existence, while support for Croatian Peasant Party leader Vladko Macek grew.
In the meantime, the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) - one of the potential coalition partners of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) party that won the elections last month and was,aon 16 December, given a mandate to form a new government - insists that the special fishing and ecological zone is activated, despite protests, as of 1 January.

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