Croats


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Croats

 

a nation in Yugoslavia, numbering 4.5 million in 1971 (census). The majority of Croats (more than 3.5 million) live in Croatia and the rest in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Serbia, and the other Yugoslav republics. Outside of Yugoslavia, there are Croats living in Austria and Hungary, in the Americas (mainly in the USA), and in Australia. The Croats speak all three dialects of Serbo-Croatian. The overwhelming majority of believers are Roman Catholics, and the remainder are Orthodox, Protestants, or Muslims.

In the sixth and seventh centuries Slavic tribes, the ancestors of the Croats, lived on the northern coast of Dalmatia, in southern Istria, in northern Bosnia, and in the Sava-Drava interfluve. Among the oldest of these Slavic tribes were the Kačicć, the Šubići, and the Svačići. A Croatian state arose in the ninth century, but it was weakened by feudal strife in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. Subsequently, different parts of the Croatian lands came under the economic, political, and cultural influence of diverse states and peoples, notably the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and the Hapsburg Monarchy. Although the lack of national unity left its mark on the culture of the Croats, they nevertheless managed to preserve and develop their indigenous culture, which shares many traits with the culture of the other South Slavic peoples of Yugoslavia. In 1918 the Croats and other South Slavic peoples united to form a single state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929.

In the past the Croats were divided into ethnographic groups, their names often derived from their place of habitation—for example, Zagorci (people living beyond the mountains), Medjumurci, Prigorci (people living in the foothills), and Ličane. The inhabitants of the former Military Frontier, bordering on the Ottoman Empire, were called Graničari (border people). They included refugees from Serbia and Bosnia and from various parts of Croatia. Such a division into ethnographic groups is meaningless today. Within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the Croats are a homogeneous nation building a socialist economy and a national culture. (For the history, economy, and culture of the Croats, see and YUGOSLAVIA.)

REFERENCE

Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964.

M. S. KASHUBA

References in periodicals archive ?
She underscored that the Croatian government assisted BiH Croats through its programs and would continue to support the development and strengthening of institutions that are vital for them.
Slobodan Praljak, 72, claimed to have drunk poison from a bottle shortly after appeal judges confirmed his jail term for involvement in a campaign to drive Muslims out of a would-be Bosnian Croat ministate in Bosnia in the early 1990s.
The Hague: The UN war crimes court for former Yugoslavia descended into chaos during it last judgement on Wednesday when a Bosnian Croat defendant appeared to take poison to protest the upholding of his 20-year jail term.
Muslims, Serbs and Croats voted in fear, a condition in which people usually make mistakes.
The Federation must give Croats and Muslims a solid institutional framework for resolving their once deadly strife.
Moreover, Muslims and Croats are also not on a cordial term with each other.
Silajdzic's struggle for a united Bosnia has the support of liberal Muslims, as well as of the Croats and Serbs loyal to the government in Sarajevo.
The HSP Presidency holds that the current policy in Republika Srpska leads to the emigration of the already small number of Croats who have remained or have returned to the region, as well as that the Bishop Komarica is the last rampart from the complete disappearance of Croats from centuries-old homes," HSP said in its statement.
You should see our members from all sides; they all have the same stories, whether they are Bosniaks, Croats or Serbs.
We have all agreed that a future council of ministers (government) should consist of three Bosnians (Muslims), three Serbs, three Croats and one minister who would represent other" communities, said Bosnian Muslim leader Sulejman Tihic.
At last the true horror of the persecutions of Serbs by Croats is acknowledged officially in western media who, throughout the Yugoslav war, blamed only the Serbs.
SERBIAN President Boris Tadic yesterday apologised for the Serb wartime atrocities at the site where more than 200 Croats were killed during the 1991 war.