During his teenage years, as a volunteer for right-wing league Croix de Feu
, he was involved in a Paris skirmish with Communists.
The author's space constraints may explain why he briefly discusses interwar Britain and the United States, but omits the Netherlands, Belgium, and the Nordic countries as well as offers little on France besides the Croix de Feu
. Spain and Austria receive some coverage, but Romania is the only pre-1945 eastern European case that receives any detailed attention.
Langlois evokes the Fascist 'moment' in February 1934 in France, and more importantly how the Left triumphed in repelling the 'Croix de feu
', to suggest Malraux's wavering political optimism.
(2) Lyautey's lofty sense of political and moral purpose, contempt for money, and selfless anti-communist patriotism would later be embodied, for Mitterrand, by the war veterans in the Croix de Feu
of Colonel Francois de la Rocque.
After participating invarious marginal meetings of dissidents, they failed to capture Colonel de La Rocque's Croix de Feu
. They placed their hopes in Doriot largely by default, and even then it took the upheaval following the election of the Popular Front, mass strikes and dissolution of the leagues to bring them together.
Another political rhetorical term that frequently appears is "populism." It is considered in Arnold's preface, by Passmore in the Croix de Feu
, and by Perrineau in his treatment of the National Front.
Kalman elucidates the doctrines of Georges Valois's Faisceau movement, which was active during the mid-to-late 1920s, as well as those of Francois de La Rocque's Croix de Feu
and Parti Social Francais (PSF), which reached the peak of their influence a decade later.
Kevin Passmore provides a lucid discussion of Lieutenant-Colonel de La Rocque's Croix de Feu
, which along with its successor the Parti Social Francais (PSF) were the largest far-right movements of this troubled decade.
This brings us to a rather more complex problem, that of Colonel de la Rocque's Croix de Feu
. Originally an antiparliamentary league, the Croix de Feu
transformed itself into a political party, the Parti Social Francais (P.S.F.) after the leagues were banned.