Croquants

Croquants

 

participants in a number of antifeudal peasant movements in the late 16th century and first half of the 17th in France. The name was derived from their slogan, “At the ro-dents” (Aux croquants; “rodents” was the term used by the insurgents for the nobility, clergy, crown bureaucrats, and tax-farmers) and, perhaps, from the region of Crocq (the province of Marche), where the movement began in January 1592.

The uprisings were directed against the increase in tax burden and seignorial requisitions. In 1594—96 the Croquant movement embraced such provinces as Périgord, Quercy, Limousin, Saintonge, and Poitou. In some areas the urban poor gave support to the Croquants. The government succeeded in suppressing the movement by 1598; however, King Henry IV was forced to carry out a number of reforms: the direct tax was lowered and confiscation of the peasants’ stock for nonpayment of debts was prohibited.

A new wave of uprisings occurred in the 1620’s through 1640’s. Uprisings in Quercy in 1624 and the southwestern provinces in 1636–37 had the greatest sweep. Périgord, where peasants, with the help of the urban commoners, had seized the towns of Eymet, Sainte Foy, and Bergerac, became the center of the latter uprising. In 1643 a Croquant uprising again broke out in the south of France, with its center at Rouergue. The insurgents seized Villefranche. In the fall of that year the movement, suppressed in the south, spread to Angoumois, Poitou, and other western provinces; it was routed in 1645. The 17th-century uprisings of the Croquants, like other popular movements of this period, were a manifestation of antifeudal popular opposition to absolutism on the eve of the Fronde.

REFERENCES

Porshnev, B. F. Narodnye vosstaniia vo Frantsii pered Frondoi (1623–1648). Moscow, 1948.
Lesokhina, E. I. “Dvizhenie krokanov (1592–1598 gg.).” In the collection Srednie veka, issue 6. Moscow, 1955.

E. I. LESOKHINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Desserts include the key lime pie with passion fruit sorbet, mouth-watering marbled pineapple cheesecake served with cinnamon wafers and clotted cream and a delicious warm sticky toffee pudding filled with chocolate croquants accompanied with sweet butter-scotch sauce.
C'est ce qui est, exactement, arrive a un certain nombre de randonneurs dont les chiens ont ete, malheureusement, envenimes en croquants sur ces tourbes empoisonnees.
Apres le rush de la semaine precedant le Ramadan pour les farines du "Sellou" , Brahim guette avec impatience la ruee de l'Aid oE il sera tres sollicite pour que les cornes de gazelle, macarons, amuse-gueules salees ou sucrees, Ghriba, Fakkas et autres friandises soient croquants, ni trop cuits ni durcis.
The Monoprix Gourmet line has several vegetable items, including mini gratins of potato (four gratins per pack, each weighing 160 grams) and les roules de courgette aux legumes croquants etpiment d'Espelette, which are to be enjoyed as entrees or accompaniments.
Yves-Marie Berce's wonderful descriptions of the croquants of Aquitaine, for example, emerge from a conservative and paternalistic approach that is built upon the idea that peasant rebels responded to state intervention in their lives by re-enacting age-old rituals based on unchanging popular myths, with the aim of defending the solidarity of their communities.
His thesis examines the context for, the course of, and the patterns underlying the late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century rebellions of croquants (meaning rebel peasants) in the southwestern part of France known as the Aquitaine.
What is left, however, is not an entirely empty shell, as the book highlights Berce's focus on the local, communal dimensions of peasant life, his typology of rebellion, and his excursion into the mentalite of croquants.