Literature on research in foster care have highlighted methodological issues namely the cross-sectional design
, comparison group, adult-centric design, sample size and sampling, standardized instrument, male caregivers are left out, and quantitative vs.
In addition, owing to the cross-sectional design
, correlation only and not causation was reported.
Table 1 Review of Studies on Predictors for Organ Donation by African Americans Factors Identified as Study Predicting Participants' Study Focus and Design Willingness to Donate Cort & Cort A cross-sectional design
; Participant agreement (2008) self-administered, with reason for organ 20-item questionnaire to donation (OR: 3.88, 95% examine the dependent CI: 2.32 to 6.46); or variable willingness to trust that the physician donate organs among a would attempt life- convenience sample of saving measures even if a Seventh Day Adventist donor (OR 1.28, 95% CI: college students (N= 334) 1.08 to 1.52).
Most research looking at personality profiles of martial artists used a cross-sectional design
. A number of these studies have compared personality traits according to the performance level of martial artists (e.g., winning or losing a competition, earning a trophy or a medal) (e.g., McGowan and Miller, 1989; Richman and Rehberg, 1986).
The research adopted a cross-sectional design
, using a structured questionnaire.
Eleven of these studies were randomised trials, 15 used a cross-sectional design
, and 13 were cohort studies.
In many of the studies, despite the use of a cross-sectional design
and the use of convenience sampling, the numbers obtained were relatively small.
Using a cross-sectional design
, information was obtained from online questionnaires and on-site physical examinations from a sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements from a single dietary supplement supplier (Shaklee).
(6,13-19) The Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV Infection (FRAM) Study set out to examine rigorously, albeit with a cross-sectional design
, the relative contributions of peripheral lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation to the phenotype of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.
Although this finding supports previous research on the effectiveness of consistent condom use to prevent HIV infection (33), our cross-sectional design
renders it impossible to assess whether or not HIV was acquired when condom use consistency was assessed.