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For example, we can tune the graphene from being transparent to opaque by crumpling it, and tune it back by unfolding it," said Jianfeng Zang, a postdoctoral fellow in Zhao's group and the first author of the paper.
"The crumpling and unfolding of graphene allows large deformation of the artificial muscle," Zang said.
Crumpling a sheet of paper into a tight ball causes some regions to become strongly creased, creating a network of narrow ridges and sharp peaks.
To investigate the energy involved in crumpling, physicist Thomas A.
Because sheets of different materials-whether paper, mylar, or metal-display similar ridges, the basic crumpling process must be similar in these materials.
The ridge model of crumpling is just one ingredient in the development of an understanding of crumpling phenomena.
To get a somewhat different perspective on crumpling, James P.
These studies were originally motivated by the finding that widely varying physical systems emit pulses of energy comparable to the pops and clicks generated by crumpling paper.
This finding applied equally to freshly crumpled sheets, to previously crumpled sheets that were crumpled again, and to sheets that had been initially folded into a regular, gridlike pattern of creases and smoothed out before crumpling.
As Houle also found, neither the material nor its thickness appears to make much difference to the energy distribution of the sounds produced by crumpling. Kramer and Lobkovsky describe these findings in the Feb.
Crumpling can occur not only on the scale of a paper or plastic sheet but also at a molecular level.
The results of both experiments and computer simulations, whether they involve paper sheets or polymer membranes, provide important clues to the features that different crumpling processes may have in common.