Cryogenic Engineering

cryogenic engineering

[‚krī·ə′jen·ik en·jə′nir·iŋ]
(engineering)
A branch of engineering specializing in technical operations at very low temperatures (about 200 to 400°R, or -160 to -50°C).
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cryogenic Engineering

 

the technology of the creation and use of cryogenic temperatures (below 120°K).

Among the main problems dealt with by cryogenic engineering are liquefaction of gases (nitrogen, oxygen, helium, and so on) and their storage and transportation in liquid form; separation of gaseous mixtures and isotopes by low-temperature methods (for example, industrial production of pure nitrogen, oxygen, and argon from air; liberation of deuterium by rectification of liquid hydrogen); construction of cryorefrigerators, which produce and maintain temperatures below 120°K; cooling and thermostating of superconductor and electrical-engineering devices (magnets, solenoids, transformers, electrical machines and cables, computer units, and gyroscopes), electronic devices (quantum mechanical amplifiers and generators; infrared detectors), and biological substances at cryogenic temperatures; and development of apparatus and equipment for performing scientific experiments at cryogenic temperatures (cryostats and bubble chambers).

The use of cryogenic temperatures in several fields of science and technology led to the appearance of independent specialties in cryogenic engineering—for example, cryoelectronics and cryobiology.

REFERENCES

Fastovskii, V. G., Iu. V. Petrovskii, and A. E. Rovinskii. Kriogennaia tekhnika, Moscow, 1967.
Spravochnik po fiziko-tekhnicheskim osnovam kriogeniki, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mulholland Memorial Award for Excellence in Cryogenic Engineering, which is presented by the Cryogenic Society of America to recognize significant achievement in particular areas of cryogenics, has been awarded to UT researcher dr.
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When it's fully built early in the next decade, the European Extremely large Telescope, or E-ELT, will gather 15 times more light than today's cutting-edge telescopes--all of which are about 10 years old--by use of a single-aperture mirror measuring just under 40 meters, or about 44 yards, across and a second mirror measuring just over 4.2 meters, or 14 feet, in diameter, said Paul Jolley, head of mechanical and cryogenic engineering for the observatory.
That's George Georgiou, Cryogenic Engineering and Product Manager, MAG IAS (mag-ias.com).
It remains a family-run business with the directors having a combined experience of more than 75 years in cryogenic engineering and manufacturing and with more than 80% of the company's annual total production being exported globally.
Cryoco, 28th Annual Cryogenic Engineering Summer Session Short Course, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Thomas Flynn (303) 665-8302; www.
Still riding on a high tide of business generated last year, the first quarter of 2008 was a busy time for Cryogenic Engineering Services (CES).
Thiophene and its homologues are widely used in synthesis of special polymers, lubricating oils for cryogenic engineering and other products.
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