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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, this type of practice brings confidentiality, billing and surely productivity adjustments and must be avoided if physical examination is necessary as with phimosis and cryptorchidism, respectively representing 14% and 8% of the referrals of our referrals.
Unilateral cryptorchidism. A testis and the accompanying fallopian tube and uterus cause an inguinal hernia.
About 1% incidence of cryptorchidism is reported by 1 year of age, and about 20% of children with cryptorchidism may have one or both nonpalpable testes.
Genital anomalies including micropenis, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias have been reported in 30-40% of male patients with Kleefstra syndrome [4].
The cardinal features are craniofacial dysmorphism, short neck with webbing, skeletal malformations, heart defects such as pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, cryptorchidism, and bleeding disorders [1].
In order to have an accurate diagnosis, the patient underwent abdominal and inguinal ultrasound on August 19, 2016, both with normal results, and also underwent a Doppler ultrasound (Figures 1 and 2) of the scrotal sac on the same day, which revealed bilateral cryptorchidism, with no Doppler alterations.
Other findings include webbed neck, pectus deformities, cryptorchidism, characteristic facies, coagulation defect, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities [4].
He had facial dysmorphism suggestive of Noonan syndrome including frontal bossing, downslanting palpebral fissures, thick lips, anteverted nose, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears and short webbed neck withlow posterior hairline, dental caries, thoracic deformation with pectus excavatum, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, fingers' hyperlaxity, valgus flat feet, loose excess skin on hands and heart murmur (Figure 1).
No abnormalities such as cryptorchidism, hermaphro-ditism, dilated bladder, other than a narrowed urethral process and orifice that caused penile urethral diverticulum were observed.