in combination with ventral stylets or valvulae, assist in moving the egg in the basal section of the ovipositor shaft while the valvili help in moving the egg in the terminal part of it using hydrostatic pressure for a speedy delivery of the egg into the host.
One is located at the junction of the ascending lamella of the outer demibranch (1); one runs along the axis of the ctenidia
, between the outer and inner demibranchs (2); and another in the ventral groove of the inner demibranch (3).
Two long ctenidia
extending length of succeeding sternite, palpus with no spine-like setae on ventral side.
floes) range widely in size, with the largest (marine snow) being greater than 500 [micro]m in size, and can be broken apart by the ctenidia
and labial palps (LP).
The four trowel-shaped ctenidia
as well as the combination of coloration and "crimped" male fixed finger distinguishes it from other members of the Eremobates scaber group.
Furthermore, feeding studies with the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758) indicate that high algal concentrations can severely overload the ctenidia
and reduce filtration rates (Riisgard et al.
Three 2-3-mm cross-sections were excised from each animal to obtain tissues from the following organs: siphon, ctenidia
, labial palps, mantle, heart, digestive organs, and gonad.
(1998) found that particle sorting in oysters (subclass Pteriomorphia; psuedolamellibranch, heterorhabdic, plicate gills) takes place on the ctenidia
; particles of differing food qualities are partitioned between the marginal groove and the dorsal ciliated tract.
Similarly, inulin seems to cross the ctenidia
of the oyster Crassostrea gigas by a paracellular route (Hevert, 1984).
fluminea are held in the inner demibranches of the ctenidia
(gills) after release from the gonads, then fertilized, and embryos are brooded in the same structure.
The inhalant siphon transports seawater containing dissolved oxygen and suspended microalgae, which is pumped via the ciliated ctenidia
(gills), whereas the exhalant siphon expels rejected food particles and pseudo feces (Feldman et al.
While host worms were retracted into their tubes, snails used their ctenidia
to suspension feed.