Ctesiphon


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Ctesiphon

(tĕs`ĭfŏn', tē`sĭ–), ruined ancient city, 20 mi (32 km) SE of Baghdad, Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris opposite Seleucia and at the mouth of the Diyala River. After 129 B.C. it was the winter residence of the Parthian kings. Ctesiphon grew rapidly and was of renowned splendor. The Romans captured it in warring against Parthia. It became the capital of the Sassanids in c.224 and a center of Nestorian Christianity. In 637 it was taken and plundered by the Arabs who renamed it, along with Seleucia, al Madain; it was abandoned by them when Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasids. It is now a suburban part of Baghdad. The ruined vault of the great audience hall contains the world's largest single span of brickwork.

Ctesiphon

 

(Greek, Ktesiphon; Arabic, Taysafun or Madain), an ancient city on the banks of the Tigris River (near modern Baghdad in Iraq). From the first century B.C. until the early third century A.D., Ctesiphon was the winter residence of the Arsacids, the kings of Parthia. From the second century A.D. on, it was repeatedly conquered by the Romans. In A.D. 226–227 it became the capital of the Sassanian state and one of the largest and richest cities in the Near East. In the 630’s it was captured and destroyed by the Arabs.

On the eastern bank of the Tigris are the remains of Taq-e Kisra, the Sassanian royal palace (made of glazed brick, dated between the third and fifth centuries), with a gigantic vaulted iwan (throneroom; the arch spans 25.63 m). The facade is decorated with tiers of false arcatures. Excavations have turned up fragments of stucco decoration.

REFERENCES

Pigulevskaia, N. V. Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekov’e. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Kinzhalov, R. V., and V. G. Lukonin. Pamiatniki kul’tury Sasanidskogo Irana. Leningrad, 1960.
Vseobshchaia istoriia arkhitektury, vol. 1. Moscow, 1970. Pages 314–47.
Reutner, O. Die Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Ktesiphon-Expedition im Winter 1928–1929. [Berlin, 1930.]
References in periodicals archive ?
The end of the retreat from Ctesiphon, however, did not lead to an immediate improvement in Indian morale.
In the south, sheltered from Islamic State depredation but still damaged by years of conflict and theft, lie Babylon -- site of Nebuchadnezzar's Hanging Gardens -- Ur, birthplace of the Biblical patriarch Abraham, and the imperial capitals of Arab and Iranian empires in Samarra, Baghdad and Ctesiphon.
They won a commercial treaty and agreements with the Byzantine and Ctesiphon. In signing these treaties, agent in Bahrain was the representative of the Iranian.
Glancing through the colourful posters, illustrating Syria's medieval Aleppo citadel or Iraq's Sassanian Ctesiphon arch, offers an eery contrast with the brutal reality both countries torn by civil war face today.
founder of the democracy: AESCHINES, Against Ctesiphon, in AESCHINES 250
At one point he swears to March on Ctesiphon, "reduce it to ruins, and give ever single Sassanid's wife and daughter to the equerries and cameleers to do with them as they please." (The threat is never carried out--Ctesiphon is, after all, Nausher-van's capital.) In this hyper-masculine world the supreme ignominy (it happens twice to Amir Hamza's foes) is to be drugged, de-bearded, and posed while still unconscious as if buggering a comrade, so that the victims awake to the wild hilarity of a crowd of onlookers.
The Abbasi caliphs established a new capital in Baghdad, close to Ctesiphon which was the capital of the Sassanian kings (its ruins still stand today some 35 km south of Baghdad).
In Islam's early seventh century the Middle East was divided between two great rival empires, the Bzantium, successor to the Roman Empire with its capitol in Constantinople, and Iran, beginning in the third Century under rule of the Sasanid dynasty, its capital at Ctesiphon, today's Baghdad.
He has been commissioned by the government to reconstruct the statue, a modernist brick monument modeled on the ancient arch of Ctesiphon south of Baghdad, and is working on the preliminary blueprints.