sociocultural evolution

(redirected from Cultural evolutionism)

sociocultural evolution

‘the process of change and development in human societies that results from cumulative change in their stores of cultural information available’ (Lenski and Lenski, 1970). For Lenski and Lenski, sociocultural evolution occurs on two levels:
  1. within individual societies;
  2. within the ‘world-system of societies’ in general as part of a process of intersocietal selection. Theorists such as Lenski and Lenski regard symbols as playing an analogous role (the transmission of information) within sociocultural systems and sociocultural evolution to that played by genes and NATURAL SELECTION in biological systems and biological evolution: in both processes continuity and change, variation and extinction, and innovation and selection, are evident – see also EVOLUTIONARY THEORY. Important differences between the two processes are recognized:
    1. while biological evolution is characterized by continuous differentiation and diversification (like the branching of a tree), it is characteristic of sociocultural evolution that societies merge or are eliminated, resulting in fewer rather than more societal types (differentiation, however, is an increasing feature within complex societies);
    2. in biological evolution simple species are not eliminated, but in sociocultural evolution they tend to be;
    3. in sociocultural evolution heritability involves transmission between generations which preserves useful learned behaviour, in biological evolution such acquired characteristics are not transmitted (see also LAMARCK); as a consequence, in comparison with biological evolution, sociocultural evolution is rapid and the potential exists for this to be brought under rational control.

The debate in sociology about evolutionary theory centres not so much on differences between social and biological evolution, since there is broad agreement on this. Rather debate centres on whether similarities or dissimilarities between biological and sociocultural change are regarded as uppermost. For sociocultural evolutionary theorists such as Lenski and Lenski, and some functionalist sociologists (e.g. see PARSONS, EVOLUTIONARY UNIVERSALS, NEOEVOLUTIONISM) similarities between the two mean that the term ‘evolution’ and evolutionary theory continue to have an important place in discussions of social change. For other sociologists, however, the differences between the two kinds of change are so great that continued talk of social evolution is not helpful and should be ended. see also EVOLUTIONARY SOCIOLOGY.

References in periodicals archive ?
The base of the thought about the processes of creation, knowledge accumulation, and the application of the farming planting technique, particularly the rice culture, can be traced and referred to the perspective of the cultural evolutionism, especially the multi lineal methodology analysis of the evolution by [12], whose study also covered the rice farming evolution in world cultivation centers.
(4) The hybrid adjective "sociocultural" is used here to encompass theoretical perspectives often referred to as either "social evolutionism" or "cultural evolutionism." Though these two can be differentiated for some purposes, it often is convenient to lump them together (e.g, Nolan & Lenski, 2011).
The tenacity with which mainstream American archaeologists cling to nineteenth-century racist cultural evolutionism (sequence of bands, tribes, chiefdoms, a la Morgan) is not unlike the Christian Right's uncompromising faith.
The volume includes a chronological list of the entries, key terms, and a timeline of schools in the field from classic cultural evolutionism to post-structuralism/-modernism/-colonialism.

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