Kazakhstan was populated first by tribes from Turkic origins - Argyns, Khazars, Qarluqs, and of the Wusuns, Kipchaksand Cumans
. The Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan also settled in the territory (14561465).
Against this territorial extension reacted his neighbours, especially the Cumans
, and when the king was busy with a military campaign in Croatia in 1091, they invaded the territories and destroyed the Biharea and Tasnad fortresses.
Besides the loans stemming from the Ottoman occupation, there are loans from the Cumans
and the Pechenegs.
In the first half of the first Christian millennium, when the Romanian people was taking final shape on the Lower Danube (on both banks of the river) and around the Carpathians, these lands were reached by additional migratory populations, such as the Bulgarians (Proto-Bulgarians), the Hungarians, and--after the year 1000--by the Pechenegs, the Cumans
, and others.
For about a millennium (3rd-13th century), Dacian-Roman communities and, later, the Romanian communities, which lived and developed in the Carphatian-Danubian-Pontic, faced with wide phenomena of migration on their lands, from Germanic Tribes and hune, following the Slavs (6th - 10th century), living with the Romanians and assimilated by them; the third period, 10th-13th century, bring the Pecheneg and Cumans
Gentiles, gradual coverage of Transylvania by Hungarian royalty and Tatar invasion.
(50) For the relationship between the Golden Horde and the Mongol Ilkhan dynasty in Iran, see Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); and Istvan Vasary, Cumans
and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185-1365 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Ruthenian refers to the Eastern Slavic inhabitants of Galicia and Volhynia; Cumans
or Polovtsy were a Turkic-speaking nomadic group, while Teutons were German speakers and Saracens Arabs.
The other Europe in the Middle Ages; Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Cumans
With internal discord and resistance to the papacy's policies toward Jews, Muslims, and pagan Cumans
, all of which Hungary encompassed, Bela found ways to negotiate with the papacy and still not lead the Crusade.
With such fortifications, the Saxons held their own against a stream of invaders--Ottomans, Cumans
, Tartars and Turks--until the Mongol invasion of 1241-42, when many settlements were destroyed.
and Tatars : Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185-1365, by Istvan Vasary.
Each of the three groups under examination--Jews, Muslims, and Cumans
(a Turkish people who came off the steppes to settle and be assimilated into Hungarian society)--responded to these incursions in different ways.